Danh sách các sao nặng nhất

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Các sao nặng nhất hiện quan sát và xác định được có khối lượng từ 20 đến 200 lần Mặt Trời:

Danh pháp Khối lượng
(so với Mặt Trời)
R136a1 265
Peony Nebula Star 175 Peony nebula.jpg
HD 269810 150
Eta Carinae 150 EtaCarinae.jpg
HD 93129A 125
The Pistol Star 80-150 Pistol star and nebula.jpg
LBV 1806-20 130-200
HD 93129 A + B[1][2] A=120, B=80
HD 93250 118
A1 in NGC 3603 A=116, B=89
Pismis 24-1 A + B[3][4] A=100–120, B=100
Arches cluster[5][6][7] Many stars, 100–130
Pismis 24-17[4] 100
S Doradus 100
Cygnus OB2-12 92
WR20 a + b[8] A=83, B=82
Melnick 42[9][10][11] 80–100
HD 97950[12][13] 80
Sk-71 51[14] 80
R 66 70
Companion to M33 X-7[15] 70
LH54-425 A + B[16] A=62, B=37
Var 83 in M33[17] 60–85
Sher 25 in NGC 3603[18] 60
Zeta-1 Scorpii[19] 60
Zeta Puppis[20] 59
WR22[21] 55–74
Plaskett A + B[22][23] A=43, B=51
AG Carinae 50
WR102c[24] 45–55
IRS-8*[25] 44.5
HD 5980 A + B[26][27][28] A=40–62, B=30
Epsilon Orionis 40
HD 148937[29][30] 40
IRAS 05423-7120[14] 40
Rho Cassiopeiae 40
Theta1 Orionis C 40
Xi Persei[31] 40
Companion to NGC300 X-1[32] 38
Cluster R136a 12 stars, all 37–76
Chi2 Orionis[33] 35–40
Companion to IC10 X-1[34] 35
VY Canis Majoris[35][36] 30–40
Gamma Velorum A 30
P Cygni 30
R 126 30
Zeta Orionis 28
IRS 15[37] 26
VV Cephei 25–40
Alpha Camelopardalis[38][39] 25–30
6 Cassiopeiae[40][41] 25
EZ Canis Majoris 25
KY Cygni[42] 25
Mu Cephei 25
V509 Cassiopeiae 25
NGC 7538 S[43] 20–40
Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) 20
S Monocerotis A[44] 18–30
WR47 8–48

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ HD 93129A
  2. ^ Big and Giant Stars: HD 93129
  3. ^ HDE 319718 (Pis 24-1) and the Pismis 24 Cluster
  4. ^ a ă http://spacespin.org/article.php/hubble-massive-star-system-pismis-24-1
  5. ^ Massive Stars in the Arches Cluster
  6. ^ Hubble Weighs In On The Heaviest Stars In The Galaxy
  7. ^ [0711.0657] The most massive stars in the Arches cluster
  8. ^ http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/press-rel/pr-2008/pr-37-08.html
  9. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/1991/91-008.txt
  10. ^ Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #5225537
  11. ^ Big and Giant Stars: Melnick 42
  12. ^ Big and Giant Stars: HD 97950
  13. ^ Quantitative spectroscopy of Wolf-Rayet stars in HD97950 and R136a - the cores o
  14. ^ a ă The Blob, the Very Rare Massive Star and the Two Populations - Striking Image of Nebula N214C taken with ESO's NTT at La Silla | SpaceRef - Your Space Reference
  15. ^ NASA - Heaviest Stellar Black Hole Discovered in Nearby Galaxy
  16. ^ Big and Giant Stars: LH54-425
  17. ^ Big and Giant Stars: Var 83
  18. ^ Big and Giant Stars: Sher 25
  19. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/zeta1sco.html
  20. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/naos.html
  21. ^ http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1995LIACo..32..463R
  22. ^ Big and Giant Stars: Plaskett's Star
  23. ^ Plaskett's Star
  24. ^ http://www.astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de/abstracts/spitzer-andreas.html
  25. ^ Does IRS-8 contain the youngest and most massive star in the Galactic Center? | Gemini Observatory
  26. ^ Big and Giant Stars: HD 5980
  27. ^ ESA - Space Science - First X-ray detection of a colliding-wind binary beyond the Milky Way
  28. ^ http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMPYIO2UXE_index_0.html
  29. ^ http://www.gemini.edu/node/188
  30. ^ http://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/hd-148937.shtml
  31. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/menkib.html
  32. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.1544
  33. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/chi2ori.html
  34. ^ http://hera.ph1.uni-koeln.de/~heintzma/Spectra/WR_1.htm
  35. ^ http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/V/VY_Canis_Majoris.html
  36. ^ http://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/vy-canis-majoris.shtml
  37. ^ A Remnant Disk around a Young Massive Star
  38. ^ http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061124.html
  39. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/alphacam.html
  40. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/6cas.html
  41. ^ http://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/6-cassiopeiae.shtml
  42. ^ http://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/ky-cygni.shtml
  43. ^ Witnessing the birth of a massive star
  44. ^ http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/15mon.html