Bước tới nội dung

Khác biệt giữa bản sửa đổi của “Thành viên:Nad 9x/Nháp”

replaced: {{ cite news → {{chú thích báo (2), |thumb| → |nhỏ| (12), |right| → |phải|, |left| → |trái| (4), ==References== → ==Tham khảo==, ==External links== → ==Liên kết ngoài==, ==See also== → ==Xem thêm==, {{See also →…
n (→‎External links: clean up, replaced: {{sister project links → {{Liên kết tới các dự án khác using AWB)
n (replaced: {{ cite news → {{chú thích báo (2), |thumb| → |nhỏ| (12), |right| → |phải|, |left| → |trái| (4), ==References== → ==Tham khảo==, ==External links== → ==Liên kết ngoài==, ==See also== → ==Xem thêm==, {{See also →…)
Madonna eventually learned to take care of herself and her siblings, and she turned to her grandmother<!-- paternal or maternal? --> in the hope of finding some solace and some form of her mother in her. The Ciccone siblings resented housekeepers and invariably rebelled against anyone brought into their home ostensibly to take the place of their beloved mother.<ref name="mom"/> In an interview with ''[[Vanity Fair (magazine)|Vanity Fair]]'', Madonna commented that she saw herself in her youth as a "lonely girl who was searching for something. I wasn't rebellious in a certain way. I cared about being good at something. I didn't shave my underarms and I didn't wear make-up like normal girls do. But I studied and I got good grades.... I wanted to be somebody."<ref name="mom"/> Terrified that her father could be taken from her as well, Madonna was often unable to sleep unless she was near him.<ref name="mom"/> Her father married the family's housekeeper Joan Gustafson,<!-- when? are they still married? --> and they had two children: Jennifer and Mario Ciccone.<ref name="peoplebio">{{chú thích báo|title=Madonna Biography: Part 1| work = [[People (magazine)|People]]|url=http://www.people.com/people/madonna/biography|accessdate =2008-05-28|date=2003-09-02}}</ref> At this point, Madonna began to express unresolved feelings of anger towards her father that lasted for decades, and developed a rebellious attitude.<ref name="mom"/> She attended St. Frederick's and St. Andrew's Catholic Elementary Schools, and then West Middle School. She was known for her high [[Grade (education)|grade point average]], and achieved notoriety for her unconventional behavior: she would perform cartwheels and handstands in the hallways between classes, dangle by her knees from the [[jungle gym|monkey bars]] during recess, and pull up her skirt during class—all so that the boys could see her underwear.<ref name="tarabio">{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=23}}</ref>
[[File:AdamsFront.JPG|thumbnhỏ|[[Rochester Adams High School]], where Madonna studied]]
Madonna later attended [[Rochester Adams High School]], and was a straight-A student and a member of the cheerleading squad.<ref name="foxbio"/> After graduating, she received a dance scholarship to the [[University of Michigan]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Tilden |first=Imogen |title =Madonna <nowiki>&#124; News</nowiki>|work=[[The Guardian]]|date=2001-07-04|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2001/jul/04/netnotes.imogentilden|accessdate=2008-05-29| location=London}}</ref> She convinced her father to allow her to take ballet lessons<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=12}}</ref> and was persuaded by Christopher Flynn, her ballet teacher, to pursue a career in dance.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|pp=26–29}}</ref> At the end of 1977 she dropped out of college and relocated to New York City.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=25}}</ref><ref>{{cite episode| title = A Star with Staying Power| url=http://edition.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/people/shows/madonna/profile.html|airdate =Saturday 11 a.m. and Sunday 7 p.m|series= People in the News| network= [[CNN]]|credits =Hosted by Paula Zahn}}</ref> She had little money and worked as a waitress at [[Dunkin' Donuts]] and with [[modern dance]] troupes.<ref>{{cite episode|title = Madonna: Queen of Pop|series= Biography| network = [[History (TV channel)|The History Channel]]|minutes=5|credits=Hosted by Jim Wallasky}}</ref> Madonna said of her move to New York, "It was the first time I'd ever taken a plane, the first time I'd ever gotten a taxi cab. I came here with $35 in my pocket. It was the bravest thing I'd ever done."<ref>{{harvnb|Rettenmund|1995|p=45}}</ref> She started to work as a backup dancer for other established artists. During a late night, Madonna was returning from a rehearsal, when she was dragged up an alleyway by a pair of men and forced to perform [[fellatio]] at knifepoint. Madonna had later commented that "the episode was a taste of my weakness, it showed me that I still could not save myself in spite of all the strong-girl show. I could never forget it."<ref>{{harvnb|O'Brien|2007|p=56}}</ref> While performing as a dancer for the French disco artist [[Patrick Hernandez]] on his 1979 world tour,<ref name="tarabio"/> Madonna became romantically involved with musician Dan Gilroy. They formed her first rock band, the [[Breakfast Club (band)|Breakfast Club]],<ref name="peoplebio"/><ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=23}}</ref> for which Madonna sang and played drums and guitar. In 1980 she left Breakfast Club and, with her former boyfriend [[Stephen Bray]] as drummer, formed the band Emmy. Their music impressed DJ and record producer [[Mark Kamins]] who arranged a meeting between Madonna and [[Sire Records]] founder [[Seymour Stein]].<ref name=tara1>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=43}}</ref><ref name="Rolling Biography">{{chú thích web|title=Biography&nbsp;– Madonna |work=[[Rolling Stone]]|year=2004|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/music/artists/madonna/biography|accessdate=2008-04-29|publisher=[[Jann Wenner]]|first=Caryn|last=Ganz}}</ref>
Gradually, Madonna's look and manner of dressing, her performances and her music videos started influencing young girls and women. Her style became a female fashion trend of the 1980s. It was created by stylist and jewelry designer [[Maripol]] and the look consisted of lace tops, skirts over [[capri pants]], [[fishnet|fishnet stockings]], jewelry bearing the crucifix, bracelets, and bleached hair.<ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=20}}</ref> She achieved global recognition after the release of her second studio album: ''[[Like a Virgin]]'' in 1984. It topped the charts in several countries and became her first number one album on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref>{{harvnb|Rettenmund|1995|p=67}}</ref> The title track, "[[Like a Virgin (song)|Like a Virgin]]", topped the [[Billboard Hot 100|''Billboard'' Hot 100]] chart for six consecutive weeks.<ref name="bbsingles"/> It attracted the attention of organizations who complained that the song and its accompanying video promoted premarital sex and undermined family values,<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=31}}</ref> and moralists sought to have the song and video banned.<ref>{{harvnb|Voller|1999|p=18}}</ref> Madonna further came under fire when she performed the song at the first [[1984 MTV Video Music Awards|MTV Video Music Awards]] where she appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake, wearing a wedding dress and bridal veil, adorned with her characteristic "Boy Toy" belt buckle. The performance is noted by scholars and by MTV as an iconic performance in MTV history.<ref name="Vena">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1618580/20090812/lady_gaga.jhtml|title=Can Lady Gaga Top These Iconic MTV VMA Performances?|last=Vena|first=Jocelyn|date=2009-08-12|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-01-12}}</ref> In later years, Madonna commented that she was actually terrified of the performance. She recalled, "I remember my manager Freddy shouting to me, 'Oh my God! What were you doing? You were wearing a wedding dress. Oh my God! You were rolling around on the floor!' It was the bravest, most blatant sexual thing I had ever done on television."<ref name="Vena"/><ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=89}}</ref> ''Like a Virgin'' was certified [[RIAA certification|diamond]] by the Recording Industry Association of America and sold more than 21&nbsp;million copies worldwide.<ref name="diamond">{{chú thích web|url=http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblDiamond |title=Diamond Awards – Certified Albums – RIAA |publisher=Recording Industry Association of America|accessdate=2010-01-03}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.theage.com.au/lifestyle/people/contrasting-fortunes-as-madonna-and-jacko-turn-50-20090403-9ruh.html|title=Contrasting fortunes as Madonna and Jacko turn 50|date=2008-08-15|work=[[The Age]]|publisher=[[Fairfax Media]]|accessdate=2009-08-24|location=Melbourne}}</ref> The [[National Association of Recording Merchandisers]] and [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] listed the album as one of the "Definitive 200 Albums of All Time" in 1998.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.besteveralbums.com/yearstats.php?y=198| title=Definitive 200 of All-time|accessdate=2010-04-19|publisher=[[National Association of Recording Merchandisers]]}}</ref>
[[File:Sean Penn Cannes.jpg|thumbnhỏ|rightphải|upright|alt=|Madonna married actor [[Sean Penn]] (''above'') on her birthday in 1985.]]
Madonna entered mainstream films in 1985, beginning with a brief appearance as a club singer in ''[[Vision Quest]]'', a romantic drama film. Its soundtrack contained her U.S. number one single, "[[Crazy for You (song)|Crazy for You]]".<ref name="ach">{{chú thích web|url=http://www.billboard.com/artist/madonna/chart-history/50294|title=Artist Chart History – Madonna|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2009-03-12}}</ref> She also appeared in the comedy ''[[Desperately Seeking Susan]]'' (1985), a film which introduced the song "[[Into the Groove]]", her first number one single in the United Kingdom.<ref name = BBC>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4753366.stm|publisher=BBC|date=2006-02-26|title=Madonna Scores 12th Chart Topper in the UK|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> Although not the lead actress for the film, her profile was such that the movie widely became seen (and marketed) as a Madonna vehicle.<ref name="AmericanF">{{chú thích tạp chí|journal=[[Film Journal International]]|publisher=[[Arthur M. Sackler|Arthur M. Sackler Foundation]], [[University of Michigan]]|author=American Film Institute|page=20|volume=10|year=1984|issn=1536-3155|title=Desperately Seeking Madonna|ref=harv}}</ref> The film received a nomination for a [[César Award for Best Foreign Film]] and ''The New York Times'' film critic [[Vincent Canby]] named it one of the ten best films of 1985.<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Ebert|first= Roger|url=http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=answerman|title=Movie Answer Man|work=[[Chicago Sun-Times]]|authorlink=Roger Ebert|date= 2007-08-16|accessdate=2009-08-02}}</ref> While filming the music video for the second single from ''Like a Virgin''—"[[Material Girl]]"—Madonna started dating actor [[Sean Penn]] and married him on her birthday in 1985.<ref name=secretlife>{{chú thích báo|last = Greig|first = Geordie|authorlink = Geordie Greig|title=Geordie Greig Meets Madonna: Secret Life of a Contented Wife
|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article586950.ece|work=[[The Sunday Times]]|date=2005-11-06|accessdate=2008-06-09|location=London}}</ref>
===1986–91: ''True Blue'', ''Like a Prayer'' and the Blond Ambition Tour===
[[File:Madonna 1990 cropped.jpg|thumbnhỏ|lefttrái|upright|alt=The image of a young blond woman. She is wearing a black coat. Her hair is short, straight and parted from the left to the right. She has bright red lips and appears to be speaking to someone on her left while looking down.|Madonna during the [[Blond Ambition World Tour]]]]
In June 1986, Madonna released her third studio album, ''[[True Blue (Madonna album)|True Blue]]'', which was inspired by and dedicated to Sean Penn.<ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=77}}</ref> ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' magazine was generally impressed with the effort, writing that the album "sound[s] as if it comes from the heart".<ref>{{chú thích web|title=Madonna: True Blue: Review|work=Rolling Stone|publisher=Jann Wenner |last=Sigerson|first=David|date=1986-07-07|accessdate=2008-05-28|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/music/reviews/album/7076/36379}}</ref> It spawned three number one singles on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100: "[[Live to Tell]]", "[[Papa Don't Preach]]" and "[[Open Your Heart (Madonna song)|Open Your Heart]]", and two more top-five singles: "[[True Blue (Madonna song)|True Blue]]" and "[[La Isla Bonita]]".<ref name="bbsingles"/><ref name="ach"/> The album topped the charts in over 28 countries worldwide, an unprecedented achievement at the time.<ref>{{harvnb|Bohem|1990|p=78}}</ref> She also starred in the critically panned film ''[[Shanghai Surprise]]'', and made her theatrical debut in a production of [[David Rabe]]'s ''Goose and Tom-Tom'', both co-starring Penn.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.tribute.ca/people/madonna-/4085/|title=Madonna Biography|publisher=[[Tribune Entertainment]] Media Group|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> The next year, Madonna's second feature film ''[[Who's That Girl (1987 film)|Who's That Girl]]'' was released. She contributed four songs to its soundtrack, including the [[Who's That Girl (Madonna song)|title track]] and "[[Causing a Commotion]]".<ref name="bbsingles"/> In June 1987, she embarked on the [[Who's That Girl World Tour]] which continued until September. Regarding the tour, Madonna commented "I realised that I could go from being unmoulded clay, and over time and with the help of people, I could turn myself into something else. This tour is the reflection of that belief and it's as if saying to me 'Who are you girl?' Hence the name, its the new me."<ref>{{harvnb|Voller|1999|p=29}}</ref><ref name="showstealer"/> Later that year, she released a remix album of past hits, entitled ''[[You Can Dance]]'', which reached 14 on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref>{{chú thích web|url={{Allmusic|class=album|id=r12207|pure_url=yes}}|title=Madonna <nowiki>&#124;</nowiki> You Can Dance |date=1987-12-02|accessdate=2010-05-18|last=Erlewine|first=Stephen Thomas|publisher=Allmusic. Rovi Corporation}}</ref> Madonna and Penn filed for divorce in December 1987, citing irreconcilable differences, with Madonna's lawyer pointing to Penn's drinking problem and hlà mộtbusive nature. The divorce was finalized in January 1989.<ref name="womenworld">{{harvnb|Horton|Simmons|2007|pp=196–198}}</ref> Of her marriage to Penn, Madonna later said, "I was completely obsessed with my career and not ready to be generous in any shape or form."<ref name=secretlife/>
===1992–96: Maverick, ''Sex'', ''Erotica'', ''Bedtime Stories'' and ''Evita''===
[[File:EvaPerónVestidaLujosamente2.jpg|thumbnhỏ|upright|alt=A picture of a Evita, former first lady of Argentina. Her hair is drawn into a tight bun at the back. She is wearing a black, low-cut dress. Around her neck là một number of chains. The lady's hands are folded in her front and she has a white fur shawl around her.|Madonna's portrayal of [[Eva Perón]] (above) in the film'' [[Evita (film)|Evita]]'' garnered her critical acclaim.]]
In 1992, Madonna had a role in ''[[A League of Their Own]]'' as Mae Mordabito, a baseball player on an all-women's team. She recorded the film's theme song, "[[This Used to Be My Playground]]", which became a Hot 100 number one hit.<ref name="ach"/> The same year, she founded her own entertainment company, [[Maverick (entertainment company)|Maverick]], consisting of a record company ([[Maverick Records]]), a film production company ([[Maverick Films]]), and associated music publishing, television broadcasting, book publishing and merchandising divisions. The deal was a joint venture with [[Time Warner]] and paid Madonna an advance of $60&nbsp;million. It gave her 20% royalties from the music proceedings, one of the highest rates in the industry, equaled at that time only by Michael Jackson's royalty rate established a year earlier with [[Sony]].<ref name="NYT - $60 million"/> The first release from the venture was Madonna's book, entitled ''[[Sex (book)|Sex]]''. It consisted of sexually provocative and explicit images, photographed by [[Steven Meisel]]. The book caused strong negative reaction from the media and the general public, but sold 1.5&nbsp;million copies at $50 each in a matter of days.<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=54}}</ref><ref name="SEX and Erotica">{{chú thích báo |first= Gregory |last= Kirschling| url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,365681,00.html |work=Entertainment Weekly| title=The Naked Launch| accessdate=2008-05-27|date=2002-10-25}}</ref> At the same time she released her fifth studio album, ''[[Erotica (Madonna album)|Erotica]]'', which debuted at number two on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref name="SEX and Erotica"/> Its title track peaked at number three on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100.<ref name="ach"/> ''Erotica'' also produced five further singles: "[[Deeper and Deeper]]", "[[Bad Girl (Madonna song)|Bad Girl]]", "[[Fever (Little Willie John song)|Fever]]", "[[Rain (Madonna song)|Rain]]" and "[[Bye Bye Baby (Madonna song)|Bye Bye Baby]]".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.madonna.com/discography/index/album/albumId/5/|title=Madonna.com > Discography > Erotica|work=Icon: The Official Madonna Website|publisher=Madonna.com|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref>
===1997–2002: ''Ray of Light'', ''Music'' and Drowned World Tour===
[[File:MadonnaDrownedWorld8 cropped.jpg|upright|thumbnhỏ|Madonna performing on the [[Drowned World Tour]]|alt=A blond woman sitting on a block of hay. She is playing a guitar and singing in front of a standing microphone. She has short hair and wears grey colored cowboy clothes.]]
After Lourdes' birth, Madonna became involved in Eastern mysticism and [[Kabbalah]]. She was introduced to the Jewish mysticism by actress [[Sandra Bernhard]] in 1997.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/kabbalah-is-madonna-losing-her-religion-407250.html|title=Kabbalah: is Madonna losing her religion?|last=Barnes|first=Anthony|date=2006-07-09|accessdate=2010-05-26|work=The Independent|location=London}}</ref> Her seventh studio album, ''[[Ray of Light]]'', (1998) reflected this change in her perception and image.<ref>{{harvnb|Rooksby|2004|p=50}}</ref> She commented: "This record, more than any other records, covers all the areas of life. I had recently joined Kabbalah and I had left off partying—but I had just had a baby, so my mood was complete, and I was incredibly thoughtful, retrospective and intrigued by the mystical aspects of life."<ref>{{harvnb|Michael|2004|p=46}}</ref> The album garnered critical acclaim and [[Slant Magazine]] declared it as "one of the great pop masterpieces of the '90s".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.slantmagazine.com/oldurlredirect.php?type=music&ID=398|title=Madonna: Ray Of Light – Music Review|date=2003-03-09|accessdate=2009-07-17|last=Cinquemani|first=Sal|publisher=[[Slant Magazine]]}}</ref> ''Ray of Light'' was honored with four [[41st Grammy Awards|Grammy Awards]], and listed as one of ''Rolling Stone''{{'}}s "[[The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time|500 Greatest Albums of All Time]]".<ref name="madonnasecret">{{chú thích báo|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/2000/SHOWBIZ/Music/11/10/wb.madonna.album/index.html|title=Madonna's secret to making 'Music'|date=2000-11-10|publisher=CNN|accessdate=2008-02-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo| url=http://archer2000.tripod.com/sbs/awardsrs500.html |work=Rolling Stone| publisher=Jann Wenner|title=The Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Albums of All Time| accessdate=2008-06-06}}</ref> Topping the charts in Australia, Canada, UK and mainland Europe, the album debuted at number two on the ''Billboard'' 200—held off from the top spot by the soundtrack to the film ''[[Titanic (1997 film)|Titanic]]''—and sold over 20&nbsp;million copies worldwide.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/150058.stm|title=Madonna: mad for fame at 40|last=Reporter|first=BBC|date=1998-08-15|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2009-11-16}}</ref> The album's first single, "[[Frozen (song)|Frozen]]", became Madonna's first single to debut at number one in the UK, while in the U.S. it became her sixth number two single and set another record for Madonna as the artist with the [[List of Billboard Hot 100 chart achievements and milestones#Most number-two hits|most number two hits]].<ref name="ach"/><ref>{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=167}}</ref> The song was banned in Belgium, however, adjudicated to be plagiarized from Belgian songwriter Salvatore Acquaviva's 1993 song "Ma Vie Fout L'camp".<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4449580.stm|title=Madonna in plagiarism case defeat|publisher=BBC|date=2005-11-18|accessdate=2007-01-21}}</ref> The second single, "[[Ray of Light (song)|Ray of Light]]", debuted at number five on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100.<ref>{{chú thích báo|first=Graham|last=Jones|url=http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH/ptech/10/25/xp.london.launch/|title=Gates 'opens' Windows XP in New York|publisher=CNN|date=2001-10-25|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> Madonna's relationship with Leon ended in December 1998; she declared that they were "better off as best friends."<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=134}}</ref> Following their break-up, Madonna signed to play a violin teacher in the film ''[[Music of the Heart]]'' but left the project, citing "creative differences" with director [[Wes Craven]].<ref name="CNNRev">{{chú thích báo|last=Clinton|first=Paul|authorlink= Paul Clinton |title = Review: "Music of the Heart" Hits All the Right Notes|url=http://edition.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Movies/9910/28/review.musicofheart/|date=1999-10-28|accessdate=2007-08-12|publisher=CNN}}</ref> She followed the success of ''Ray of Light'' with the single "[[Beautiful Stranger]]", recorded for the 1999 film ''[[Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me]]''. It reached number 19 on the Hot 100 solely on radio airplay and earned Madonna a Grammy Award for "[[Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media|Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media]]".<ref name="ach"/><ref name="grammy">{{chú thích web|url=http://www.grammy.com/nominees/search?artist=Madonna&title=&year=All&genre=All|title=Grammy Award Winners – Madonna|publisher=[[National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences]]|accessdate=2008-05-27}}</ref>
===2003–06: ''American Life'' and ''Confessions on a Dance Floor''===
[[File:Madonna Live 8 - 1.jpg|upright|thumbnhỏ|alt=The front profile, from the waist up, of a middle-aged blond woman. She is wearing a white, sleeveless coat and white pants. Her hair is parted in the middle and is in locks around her face. She is holding a microphone in her right hand while her left hand is placed behind her head. She is smiling looking down. Behind her a video screen is red.| Madonna performing at the [[Live 8]] benefit concert]]
Following ''Die Another Day'', Madonna collaborated with fashion photographer [[Steven Klein]] in 2003 for an exhibition installation named ''[[Steven Klein|X-STaTIC Pro=CeSS]]''. It included photography from a photo shoot in ''[[W (magazine)|W]]'' magazine, and seven video segments. The installation ran from March to May in New York's [[Deitch Projects]] gallery. It then traveled the world in an edited form.<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Lieberman|first=Rhonda|title=Weighty Madonna: Rhonda Lieberman on "X-STaTIC PRo=CeSS"|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_9_41/ai_101779141|date=2003-05-09|publisher=[[BNET]]|accessdate=2009-05-23}}</ref> Madonna released her ninth studio album, ''[[American Life]]'', which was based on her observations of American society, and received mixed reviews.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.metacritic.com/music/american-life| title=American Life by Madonna: Review |publisher=[[Metacritic]]|accessdate=2007-12-30}}</ref> She commented, "[''American Life''] was like a trip down memory lane, looking back at everything I've accomplished and all the things I once valued and all the things that were important to me."<ref name="mtvamerican"/> Larry Flick from ''[[The Advocate]]'' felt that "''American Life'' là mộtn album that là mộtmong her most adventurous and lyrically intelligent. [...] It is like the flip side to 2000's ''Music'', and turns out to be a lazy, half-arsed effort to sound and take her seriously."<ref name="mtvamerican">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/bands/m/madonna/news_feature_042203/|title=Madonna: Her American Life|date=2003-04-09|accessdate=2010-05-26|last=Norris|first=John|publisher=MTV}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Flick|first=Larry|title=All-Americna Girl|work=[[The Advocate]]|issue=887|page=45|issn= 0001-8996|ref=harv}}</ref> The [[American Life (song)|title song]] peaked at number 37 on the Hot 100.<ref name="ach"/> Its original music video was canceled as Madonna thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,439329,00.html|title=Miss 'American'|date=2003-04-01|accessdate=2010-05-17|last=Susman|first=Gary|work=Entertainment Weekly}}</ref> With only four million copies sold worldwide, ''American Life'' was the lowest selling album of her career.<ref>{{chú thích báo| url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1500733/Thank-you-for-the-music-How-Madonnas-new-single-will-give-Abba-their-greatest-ever-hit.html|title=Thank You For the Music! How Madonna's New Single Will Give Abba Their Greatest-Ever Hit|last=Hastings| first=Chris| work=The Daily Telegraph|date=2005-10-16| accessdate=2008-01-07|location=London}}</ref> She gave another provocative performance later that year at the [[2003 MTV Video Music Awards]], while singing "[[Hollywood (Madonna song)|Hollywood]]" with [[Britney Spears]], [[Christina Aguilera]] and [[Missy Elliott]]. Madonna mouthkissed Spears and Aguilera during the performance, triggering a tabloid frenzy.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1477729/20030828/spears_britney.jhtml|title=Madonna Smooches With Britney And Christina|last=Moss|first=Corey|date=2003-08-28|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-02-24}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/awards/mtvmusicawards/2003-08-28-mtv-vma_x.htm| title=Madonna, Spears, Aguilera shock at MTV Awards|work=USA Today|date=2003-08-28|last=Gardner|first=Elysa|publisher=Gannett Company|accessdate=2007-01-10}}</ref> In October 2003, Madonna provided guest vocals on Spears' single "[[Me Against the Music]]".<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2003|p=233}}</ref> It was followed with the release of ''[[Remixed & Revisited]]''. The EP contained remixed versions of songs from ''American Life'' and included "Your Honesty", a previously unreleased track from the ''Bedtime Stories'' recording sessions.<ref>{{harvnb|Brackett||Hoard|2004|p=304}}</ref> Madonna also signed a contract with [[Callaway Arts & Entertainment]] to be the author of five children's books. The first of these books, entitled ''[[The English Roses]]'', was published in September 2003. The story was about four English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of each other.<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=97}}</ref> Kate Kellway from ''[[The Guardian]]'' commented "[Madonna] là mộtn actress playing at what she can never be – a [[J. K. Rowling|J.K. Rowling]], an English rose."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/sep/21/booksforchildrenandteenagers.madonna|title=Immaterial girl|last=Kellaway|first=Kate|date=2003-09-21|accessdate=2010-05-31|work=The Guardian|location=London}}</ref> The book debuted at the top of [[The New York Times Best Seller list|''The New York Times'' Best Seller list]] and became the fastest-selling children's picture book of all time.<ref name="womenworld"/>
===2007–09: Live Nation, ''Hard Candy'' and the Sticky & Sweet Tour===
[[File:Madonna-live earth-la isla bonita.jpg|lefttrái|upright|thumbnhỏ|Madonna performing at the [[Live Earth]] concerts|alt=A blond woman in a black dress, holding a black hat atop her head with her riht hand, and a microphon in her left. She is pointing her tongue towards the camera. Beside her the smiling face of a man is visible.]]
Madonna released the song "[[Hey You (Madonna song)|Hey You]]" for the [[Live Earth]] series of concerts. The song was available as a free download during its first week of release. She also performed it at the [[Live Earth concert, London|London Live Earth concert]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/live-earth-london-wraps-with-madonna-spectacular-1003608603.story|title=Live Earth London Wraps With Madonna Spectacular|last=Herrera|first=Monica|date=2007-07-16|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref> Madonna announced her departure from Warner Bros. Records, and a new $120&nbsp;million, ten-year contract with [[Live Nation]]. She became the founding artist for the new music division, ''Live Nation Artists''.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/update-madonna-confirms-deal-with-live-nation-1003658914.story|title=Update: Madonna Confirms Deal With Live Nation|last=Caulfield|first=Keith|date=2007-10-16|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref> She produced and wrote ''[[I Am Because We Are]]'', a documentary on the problems faced by Malawians. The documentary was directed by Nathan Rissman, who worked as Madonna's gardener.<ref name=iabwa>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2008/may/23/cannesfilmfestival.popandrock|work=The Guardian|date=2007-08-09 |title=I Am Because We Are review|last=Petridis|first=Alexis|authorlink=Alexis Petridis|accessdate=2008-06-14|location=London}}</ref> She also directed her first film ''[[Filth and Wisdom]]''. The story of the film was about three friends and their aspirations. Madonna commented that it was Ritchie who inspired her to develop the screenplay for the film. "The fact of the matter is that all the work I do is very autobiographical, directly or indirectly, because who do I know better than me?"<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/26/entertainment/ca-madonna26/2|title=Directing what she knows|last=Lim|first=Dennis|date=2008-10-26|work=Los Angeles Times|accessdate=2010-06-03}}</ref> ''The Times'' said she had "done herself proud" while ''The Daily Telegraph'' described the film as "not an entirely unpromising first effort [but] Madonna would do well to hang on to her day job."<ref>{{chú thích báo|title=Review: Madonna's Filth and Wisdom|work=[[The Times]]|last=Elan|first=Priya|date=2008-04-03|url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/film_reviews/article3364108.ece|accessdate=2008-06-14|location=London}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|title=Filth and Wisdom: Don't give up the day job, Madonna|work=The Daily Telegraph|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/filmreviews/3671154/Filth-and-Wisdom-Dont-give-up-the-day-job-Madonna.html|accessdate=2008-06-14|last=Johnston|first=Sheila|location=London|date=2008-02-14}}</ref> In December 2007, the [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] announced Madonna as one of the five inductees of 2008.<ref>{{chú thích báo
|url=http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/awards/2007-12-13-rockfame_N.htm|title=Madonna, Others Named to Rock Hall of Fame|work=USA Today|publisher=Gannett Company|date= 2007-12-13 |accessdate=2007-12-13|agency=Associated Press}}</ref> At the induction ceremony on March 10, 2008,<ref name="rsinducted">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-beasties-mellencamp-up-for-rock-1003648320.story|title=Madonna, Beasties, Mellencamp Up For Rock Hall |work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2010-02-25|date=2008-03-11|last=Campbell|first=Jim}}</ref> Madonna did not sing but asked fellow Hall of Fame inductees and Michigan natives [[The Stooges]] to perform her songs "Burning Up" and "Ray of Light". She thanked Christopher Flynn, her dance teacher from 35 years earlier, for his encouragement to follow her dreams.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/03/10/entertainment/main3923437.shtml|title=Madonna Has Her Say At Rock Hall Ceremony|date=2008-03-18|work=CBS News|publisher=CBS Interactive|accessdate=2010-05-18}}</ref>
{{Quote box|width=240px|align=right|quote="Probably in many respects most of the songs [on ''Hard Candy''] are [autobiographical]. But in more of an unconscious way. I don't really think about telling personal stories when I'm writing music. It just comes. And then a lot of times, six months later, eight months later, I go, 'Oh, that's what I wrote that song about.' But that's when I play the song for lots of people and they all go, 'Oh, I can totally relate to that.'"|source=— Madonna talking about the inspiration behind ''Hard Candy''<ref>{{chú thích web|last=Sischy|first=Ingrid|title=Madonna: the one and only, on her life unchained|work=[[Interview (magazine)|Interview]]|publisher=[[CNET Networks]]|date=2008-04-21|url=http://thebosh.com/archives/2008/03/madonna_interview_magazine_april_2008.php|accessdate=2008-08-21}}</ref>
The album debuted at number one in 37 countries and on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonnas-hard-candy-debuts-at-1-in-37-countries|title=Madonna's Hard Candy Debuts At #1 in 37 countries|date=2008-04-30|accessdate=2008-12-23|work=Icon: Official Madonna website|publisher=Madonna.com}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-leads-busy-billboard-200-with-7th-1-1003799874.story|title=Madonna Leads Busy Billboard 200 with 7th #1|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|last=Hasty|first= Katie|date=2008-05-07|accessdate=2008-05-07}}</ref> It received generally positive reviews worldwide though some critics panned it as "an attempt to harness the urban market".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.metacritic.com/music/hard-candy|title=Hard Candy by Madonna: Review|work=Metacritic|accessdate=2008-05-26}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Savage |first=Mark |authorlink= Mark Savage (American playwright)|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7336448.stm|title=Review: Madonna's Hard Candy|publisher=BBC|date=2008-04-08|accessdate=2008-05-26}}</ref> Its lead single, "[[4 Minutes (Madonna song)|4 Minutes]]", reached number three on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100. The song was Madonna's 37th Hot 100 top-ten hit—it pushed Madonna past [[Elvis Presley]] as the artist with the most top-ten hits.<ref name="mariahmadonna">{{chú citethích newsbáo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/mariah-madonna-male-billboard-chart-history-1003784083.story|title=Mariah, Madonna Make Billboard Chart History|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|work=Billboard| date=2008-04-02|last=Hasty|first=Katie|accessdate=2008-04-02}}</ref> In the UK, she retained her record for the most number one singles for a female artist; "4 Minutes" becoming her thirteenth.<ref>{{chú citethích newsbáo|url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/article3789058.ece|title=Madonna Goes to No. 1 For the 13th Time|work=The Times|last= Schmidt|first= Veronica|date=2008-04-21| accessdate=2008-04-21|location=London}}</ref> At the 23rd [[Japan Gold Disc Awards]], Madonna received her fifth "Artist of the Year" trophy from [[Recording Industry Association of Japan]], the most for any artist.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://wmg.jp/artist/madonna/news_23642.html|title=第23回日本ゴールドディスク大賞で"アーティスト・オブ・ザ・イヤー"を受賞!|language=Japanese|date=2009-03-03|accessdate=2009-03-04|publisher=[[Warner Music Group|Warner Music Japan]]}}</ref> To further promote the album, Madonna embarked on the [[Sticky & Sweet Tour]]; her first major venture with Live Nation. With a gross of $280&nbsp;million, it became the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist, surpassing the previous record Madonna set with the Confessions Tour.<ref name="sticky">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1620700/20090903/madonna.jhtml|title=Madonna Breaks Her Own Solo-Tour Record With Sticky & Sweet|last=Kaufman|first=Gil|date=2009-09-03|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref> It was extended to the next year, adding new European dates, and after it ended, the total gross was $408&nbsp;million.<ref name="sticky"/><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-resuming-sticky-sweet-tour-this-1003936340.story|title=Madonna Resuming Sticky & Sweet Tour This Summer |date=2009-01-30|accessdate=2009-05-24|last=Herrera|first=Monica|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc}}</ref>
''Life with My Sister Madonna'', a book by Madonna's brother [[Christopher Ciccone]], debuted at number two on ''The New York Times'' Bestseller List.<ref name=nytb>{{chú thích báo |title=Bestsellers: Hardcover Nonfiction |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/03/books/bestseller/0803besthardnonfiction.html |work=The New York Times|date=2008-08-03 |accessdate=2008-08-21}}</ref> It was not authorized by Madonna, and led to a rift between them.<ref>{{chú thích báo| title=Madonna's brother's book explores Guy Ritchie marriage|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/celebritynews/2279132/Madonna's-brother's-book-explores-Guy-Ritchie-marriage.html|work=The Daily Telegraph|date= 2008-10-15|accessdate=2009-05-23|location=London}}</ref> Problems also arose between Madonna and Ritchie, with the media reporting that they were on the verge of separation. Ultimately, Madonna filed for divorce from Ritchie, citing irreconcilable differences, which was finalized in December 2008.<ref>{{chú thích báo |title=Madonna and Ritchie Confirm Split|date=2008-10-16| publisher=BBC|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7672083.stm|accessdate=2008-11-15}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7784519.stm|title=Madonna gives Guy £50m in divorce |date=2008-12-15|accessdate=2009-05-23|publisher=BBC}}</ref> She decided to adopt again from Malawi. The country's High Court initially approved the adoption of Chifundo "Mercy" James;<ref name="mercydob">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/showbiz/2009/04/03/madonna-s-bid-to-adopt-second-child-from-malawi-is-blocked-86908-21250403/|title=Madonna's bid to adopt second child from Malawi is blocked|date=2009-04-03|publisher=Trinity Mirror|work=Daily Record|accessdate=2009-07-07}}</ref> however, the application was rejected because Madonna was not a resident of Malawi.<ref name="mercyjames">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/madonna-loses-adoption-bid-in-malawi-1003958768.story|title=Madonna Loses Adoption Bid In Malawi|last=Banda|first=Mabvuto|first2=Michael |last2=Georgy|date=2009-05-25|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2009-05-26}}</ref> Madonna appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Court of Malawi granted Madonna the right to adopt Mercy James.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/06/12/earlyshow/main5082589.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_5082589|title=Madonna Wins Adoption Battle|last=Tyre|first=Blan|date=2009-06-12|work=[[CBS News]]|publisher=[[CBS Interactive|CBS Interactive Inc.]]|accessdate=2009-06-19}}</ref> She also released ''[[Celebration (Madonna album)|Celebration]]'', her third greatest-hits album, and the closing release with Warner. It contained the new songs "[[Celebration (Madonna song)|Celebration]]" and "[[Revolver (song)|Revolver]]" along with 34 hits spanning her career.<ref name="celebraterelease">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-s-celebration-hits-collection-to-1003996769.story|title=Madonna's 'Celebration' Hits Collection To Feature Two New Songs|last=Caulfield|first=Keith|date=2009-07-23|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2009-07-23}}</ref> ''Celebration'' reached number one in the UK, tying her with Elvis Presley as the solo act with most number one albums in the British chart history.<ref name="bbmadge">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-s-u-k-chart-celebration-1004016343.story|title=Madonna's U.K. Chart 'Celebration' |last=Sexton|first=Paul|date=2009-09-29|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2009-09-29}}</ref> She appeared at the [[2009 MTV Video Music Awards]] on September 13, 2009, to speak in tribute to deceased pop star [[Michael Jackson]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1621390/20090913/jackson_michael.jhtml|title=Madonna Pays Tearful Tribute To Michael Jackson At 2009 VMAs?|last=Crosley|first=Hillary|first2=Gil|last2=Kaufman|date=2009-09-13|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2009-09-14}}</ref> Madonna ended the 2000s as the best-selling single artist of the decade in the U.S. and the most-played artist of the decade in the UK.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.billboard.biz/bbbiz/charts/decadeendcharts/2009/singles-sales-artists|title=Billboard Charts – Decade-end Artists – Singles Sales Artists|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2010-11-13}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8603409.stm|title=Madonna 'most played' artist of decade|publisher=BBC News|date=2010-04-05|accessdate=2010-11-13}}</ref> ''Billboard'' also announced her as the third top-touring artist of the decade—behind only [[The Rolling Stones]] and [[U2]]—with a gross of over $801&nbsp;million, 6.3 million attendance and 244 sell-outs of 248 shows.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.billboard.com/features/top-touring-artists-of-the-decade-1004053065.story|title=Top Touring Artists of the Decade|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2011-09-21}}</ref>
===2010–present: ''W.E.'', ''M.D.N.A.'' and other ventures===
[[File:Madonna Toronto Film Festival.jpg|thumbnhỏ|upright|Madonna at the premiere of ''[[W.E. (film)|W.E.]]'' at the [[Toronto Film Festival]].|alt=A blond woman in a black dress, smiling and looking down.]]
Madonna performed "Like a Prayer" at the [[Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earthquake Relief]] concert in January 2010.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1630335/20100122/madonna.jhtml|title=Madonna Brings Classic 'Like A Prayer' To 'Hope For Haiti Now' Telethon|last=Johnston|first=Maura|date=2010-01-22|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-01-25}}</ref> In April she released her third live album, ''[[Sticky & Sweet Tour (album)|Sticky & Sweet Tour]]''. It was her first release under Live Nation, but was distributed by Warner Bros.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonnas-sticky--sweet-concert-to-be-released-march-30th-on-dvd-bluray-and-cd|title=Madonna's 'Sticky & Sweet' Concert To Be Released March 30 On DVD, Blu-Ray And CD|work=Icon: Official Madonna website|publisher=Madonna.com|accessdate=2010-01-12|date=2010-01-12}}</ref> Following the completion of the shooting for ''W.E.'', Madonna released the "Material Girl" clothing line, which she designed with her daughter, Lourdes.<ref name="mgclothing">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE67J3YP20100820|title=Madonna sued over "Material Girl" clothing line|date=2010-08-20|accessdate=2010-11-11|work=[[Reuters]]}}</ref> The 1980s inspired clothing line, borrowed from Madonna's punk-girl style when she rose to fame in the 1980s, was released under the [[Macy's]] label.<ref name="mgclothing"/> Soon after the clothing line went on sale, apparel manufacturer L.A. Triumph Inc. sued her saying that they have been using the name Material Girl and selling clothes under that name since 1997. They demanded that Madonna's clothing line be stopped from selling and the profits be returned.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/gossip/2010/08/madonna-sued-material-girl-clothing-line-macys.html|title=Madonna sued over Material Girl clothing line for Macy's|last=D'Zurilla|first=Christie|date=2010-08-20|accessdate=2010-11-11|work=[[Los Angeles Times]]}}</ref> The Material Girl clothing was first fronted by [[Taylor Momsen]] but she was later replaced by [[Kelly Osbourne]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://hollywoodcrush.mtv.com/2011/01/25/kelly-osbourne-material-girl/|title=Kelly Osbourne, Material Girl?|date=2011-05-12|accessdate=2011-06-15|last=Vena|first=Jocelyn|publisher=MTV}}</ref> In November 2011, Madonna and MG Icon announced the release of a second fashion brand called "Truth or Dare by Madonna" to include footwear, underclothing, and accessories. The brand represents a second partnership between MG Icon and [[Macy's]]. <ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonna-and-mg-icon-announce-the-launch-of-the-truth-or-dare-by-madonna-brand-|title=Madonna And MG Icon Announce The Launch of The "Truth or Dare by Madonna" Brand|date=2011-11-03|publisher=Icon: Official Madonna website. Madonna.com|accessdate=2011-12-05}}</ref> The [[Truth or Dare (fragrance)|Truth or Dare fragrance]], the first release from the brand, appears in 2012.
Throughout her career, Madonna has written and co-written most of her own materials, as well as songs of other artists such as [[Nick Kamen]]'s "[[Each Time You Break My Heart]]" and [[Gary Barlow]]'s "[[Love Won't Wait]]".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.ascap.com/ace/search.cfm?requesttimeout=300&mode=results&searchstr=2947550&search_in=c&search_type=exact&search_det=t,s,w,p,b,v&results_pp=25&start=1|title=Works written by Madonna L. Ciccone|publisher=[[American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers]]|accessdate=2011-08-07}}</ref> According to Freya Jarman-Ivens, Madonna's talent for developing "incredible" hooks for her songs allows the lyrics to capture the attention of the audience, even without the influence of the music. As an example, Jarman-Ivens cites the 1985 single "[[Into the Groove]]" and its line "Live out your fantasy here with me, just let the music set you free; Touch my body, and move in time, now I know you're mine."<ref name="fouz55">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|pp=55–58}}</ref> From 1983 to 1986, Madonna's musical productions were often girlish and naïve in nature, focusing primarily on love, romance, passion and boy-meets-girl relationships.<ref name="fouz55"/> This changed with the album ''Like a Prayer'', when the lyrics became much more personal, such as in "Promise to Try", which references Madonna's lingering pain at the loss of her mother.<ref name="fouz55"/> Madonna's lyrics often suggest an identification with the gay community. Fouz believes that when Madonna sings "Come on girls, do you believe in love?" in "[[Express Yourself (Madonna song)|Express Yourself]]", she là mộtddressing both the gay audience and the heterosexual female.<ref name="fouz55"/> Even in the ''Erotica'' era, with its often adult-oriented lyrics, the songs appear free-flowing and gullible ("So won't you go down, where it's warm inside" — "Where Life Begins" from ''Erotica''). Madonna's songwriting ability has been criticized, with ''Rolling Stone''{{'}}s Maria Raha calling her lyrics "flighty and not sophisticated. Madonna can only bring a trunk full of trite lyrics on the long standing tradition of pop music, love; when she wasn't singing about love, she was singing about partying and dancing."<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Raha|first=Maria|date=1987-09-21|work=Rolling Stone|publisher=Jann Wenner|title=Cinderella's big score: women of the punk and indie underground |volume=1078|issue=9|issn=0032-791X|ref=harv}}</ref> Her lyrics were considered banal, and her songwriting capability was largely ignored by critics until the release of ''Ray of Light'' and ''Music''. According to Jarman-Ivens, lyrics such as "You're frozen, when your heart's not open" ("[[Frozen (song)|Frozen]]", 1998) and "I can't remember, when I was young, I can't express if it was wrong" ("Paradise (Not for Me)", 2000) reflected an artistic palette, "encompassing diverse musical, textual and visual styles in its lyrics."<ref name="fouz55"/>
[[File:MadonnaVirginTour cropped.jpg|thumbnhỏ|upright|lefttrái|Madonna, seen here on [[The Virgin Tour]], had a bright, girlish vocal [[timbre]] that became passé in her later works.]]
She started her musical career with songs that she described as "soulful pop music". Madonna recalled in a 1983 interview with ''Island'' magazine that she had wanted to grow up as a black kid.<ref name="island">{{chú thích tạp chí|title=Madonna: Virgin Pop|last=Simmons|first=Collin|date=October 1983|work=Island|publisher=Dolores Press Ltd|page=23|volume=9|ref=harv}}</ref> "First of all, all the black girls in my neighborhood had these dances in their yard where they had these little turntables with 45 records and they'd play all this Motown stuff and they would dance, just dance, all of them dancing together and none of the white kids I knew would ever do that. They were really boring and stiff. And I wanted to be part of the dancing. I didn’t like my friends. I had to be beaten up so many times by these little black girls before they would accept me and finally one day they whipped me with a rubber hose till I was like, lying on the ground crying. And then they just stopped doing it all of a sudden and let me be their friend, part of their group."<ref name="island"/> On her 1983 debut album, Madonna's vocal abilities and personal artistry were not fully formed. Her vocal style was similar to other pop stars of that period like [[Paula Abdul]], [[Debbie Gibson]] and [[Taylor Dayne]].<ref name="fouzvocal">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|pp=59–61}}</ref> The songs on ''Madonna'' reveal several key trends that have continued to define her success, including a strong dance-based idiom, catchy [[hook (music)|hooks]], highly polished [[arrangement]]s and Madonna's own vocal style. In songs such as "Lucky Star" and "Borderline", Madonna introduced a style of upbeat dance music that would prove particularly appealing to gay audiences. The bright, girlish vocal [[timbre]] of the early years became passé in Madonna's later works, the change being deliberate, since Madonna was constantly reminded of how the critics had once labelled her as "Minnie Mouse on helium", because of her early voice.<ref name="fouzvocal"/> Her second album, ''Like a Virgin'' (1984), foreshadowed several trends in Madonna's later works. It contained references to classical works ([[pizzicato]] synthesizer line that opens "[[Angel (Madonna song)|Angel]]"); potential negative reaction from social groups ("[[Dress You Up]]" was blacklisted by the [[Parents Music Resource Center]]); and retro styles ("Shoo-Bee-Doo", Madonna's homage to [[Motown]]).<ref name="fouzvocal"/> Madonna's early style, and the change that she ushered in it, is best evident in the song "Material Girl". It opens with Madonna using a little-girl voice, but following the first verse, she switches to a richer, more mature voice in the [[chorus effect|chorus]].<ref name="fouzvocal"/> This mature artistic statement was visible in ''True Blue'' (1986). The song "Papa Don't Preach" was a significant milestone in her artistic career. The classical introduction, fast tempo and the gravity in her voice was unprecedented in Madonna's œuvre at that time.<ref name="fouzvocal"/>
[[File:Marilyn Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes trailer.jpg|thumbnhỏ|[[Marilyn Monroe]] (pictured) had a profound influence on Madonna.|alt=Bust of a blond woman in short curled hair and wearing a bright pink, sleeveless dress. Putting both her hands up, she looks to the right of the image.]]
According to Taraborrelli, "Almost certainly, the defining moment of Madonna's childhood—the one that would have the most influence in shaping her into the woman she would become—was the tragic and untimely death of her beloved mother."<ref name="mom">{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|pp=11–13}}</ref> Psychiatrist Keith Ablow suggests that her mother's death would have had an immeasurable impact on the young Madonna at a time when her personality was still forming. According to Ablow, the younger a child là mộtt the time of a serious loss, the more profound the influence and the longer lasting the impact. He concludes that "some people never reconcile themselves to such a loss at an early age, Madonna is not different than them."<ref name="mom"/> Conversely, author [[Lucy O'Brien]] feels that the impact of the rape is, in fact, the motivating factor behind everything Madonna has done, more important even than the death of her mother: "It's not so much grief at her mother's death that drives her, as the sense of abandonment that left her unprotected. She encountered her own worst possible scenario, becoming a victim of male violence, and thereafter turned that full-tilt into her work, reversing the equation at every opportunity."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/madonna-like-an-icon-by-lucy-obrien-463929.html|title=Madonna: Like an Icon, By Lucy O'Brien|last=Burston|first=Paul|date=2007-09-09|accessdate=2010-09-06|work=The Independent | location=London}}</ref>
===Music videos and performances===
[[File:Madonna wembley 1.jpg|thumbnhỏ|Madonna performing at the [[Confessions Tour]] in 2006|alt=A female blond performer wearing a red top. She is holding a microphone in her brown-gloved right hand.]]
In ''The Madonna Companion'', biographers Allen Metz and Carol Benson noted that more than any other recent pop artist, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and enhance her recorded work.<ref name="metz2">{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=161}}</ref> According to them, many of her songs have the imagery of the music video in strong context, while referring to the music. The media and public reaction towards her most-discussed songs such as "Papa Don't Preach", "Like a Prayer" or "Justify My Love" had to do with the music videos created to promote the song and their impact, rather than the song itself.<ref name="metz2"/> Morton felt that "artistically, Madonna's songwriting is often overshadowed by her striking pop videos."<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=20}}</ref> Madonna's initial music videos reflected her American and Hispanic mixed street style combined with a flamboyant glamor.<ref name="metz2"/> She was able to transmit her avant-garde downtown New York fashion sense to the American audience.<ref>{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=163}}</ref> The imagery and incorporation of Hispanic culture and Catholic symbolism continued with the music videos from the ''True Blue'' era.<ref>{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|p=145}}</ref> Author [[Douglas Kellner]] noted, "such 'multiculturalism' and her culturally transgressive moves turned out to be highly successful moves that endeared her to large and varied youth audiences".<ref>{{harvnb|Kellner|1995|p=271}}</ref> Madonna's Spanish look in the videos became the fashion trend of that time, in the form of boleros and layered skirts, accessorizing with rosary beads and a crucifix as in the video of "La Isla Bonita".<ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=44}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Rettenmund|1995|p=34}}</ref> Academics noted that with her videos, Madonna was subtly reversing the usual role of male as the dominant sex.<ref>{{harvnb|Welton|1998|p=234}}</ref> This symbolism and imagery was probably the most prevalent in the music video for "Like a Prayer". The video included scenes of an African-American church choir, Madonna attracted to a statue of a black saint, and singing in front of burning crosses. This mix of the sacred and the profane upset the Vatican and resulted in the Pepsi commercial withdrawal.<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=70}}</ref> Madonna has been honored with 20 [[MTV Video Music Award]]s—the most for any artist—including the lifetime achievement "[[MTV Video Vanguard Award|Video Vanguard Award]]" in 1986.<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|title=Who has won the most MTV Video Music Awards?|date=March 2008|work=[[Vibe (magazine)|Vibe]]|publisher=Vibe Media Group|issn=1070-4701|volume=16|issue=2|page=58|ref=harv}}</ref> In 2003, MTV named her "The Greatest Music Video Star Ever" and said that "Madonna's innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video art form is what won her the award."<ref>{{harvnb|Landrum|2007|p=258}}</ref>
{{SeeXem alsothêm|List of awards and nominations received by Madonna|Madonna as gay icon|Madonna wannabe|Madonna Studies}}
[[File:Madonnaperformingstickyandsweettour2008.jpg|thumbnhỏ|lefttrái|upright|alt=A blond woman standing on a stage. She has curvy, flowing hair and is dressed in a black, translucent top with boots in her leg and a white hat. The woman is holding an electric guitar with her left hand and singing in to a microphone in her right. She is surrounded by audience members whose heads can be seen in the image. Behind the woman, tow back-up singers can be seen in the distance.|Madonna performing at her [[Sticky & Sweet Tour]], the highest-grossing tour of all time by a solo artist]]
Madonna has been considered to be one of the greatest figures in music and one of the most influential women in history.<ref name="century"/> She is featured in the book ''100 Most Important Women of the 20th Century'', published in 1998 by [[Ladies' Home Journal]].<ref name="century">{{chú thích báo|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/35762719.html?dids=35762719:35762719&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Nov+08%2C+1998&author=Vicky+Edwards.+Compiled+by+Wendy+Navratil.&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=WOMEN%27S+WORKS+GET+THEIR+WORDS%27+WORTH&pqatl=google|title=Women's Works Get Their Words' Worth|first=Vicky|last=Edwards|work=[[Chicago Tribune]]|publisher=[[Tribune Company]]|date=1998-11-08|accessdate=2011-09-07}}</ref> In 2010, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine included Madonna in the elite list of the "25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century", where she became one of the only two singers included, alongside [[Aretha Franklin]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2029774_2029776_2031853,00.html|title=The 25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century: Madonna (1958–present)|last=Castillo|first=Michelle|date=2010-11-18|accessdate=2010-12-15|work=Time}}</ref> Madonna also topped the [[VH1]]'s list of "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.vh1.com/shows/the_greatest/episode.jhtml?episodeID=66355|title=50 Greatest Women of the Video Era|publisher=[[VH1]]|accessdate=2011-02-28}}</ref> Academic authors Ros Horton and Sally Simmons documented Madonna on their 2007 book ''Women Who Changed the World'', which "pays homage to fifty of the most influential and admired women of all time."<ref name="womenworld"/> She was inducted into the [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] on March 10, 2008—her first year of eligibility—for "influence and significance on rock and roll music."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.heraldsun.com.au/entertainment/music/madonna-still-manages-to-shock/story-e6frf9hf-1111115778132|title=Madonna shocks with confession at Hall of Fame acceptance speech|date=2008-03-12|work=[[Herald Sun]]|publisher=[[The Herald and Weekly Times]]|accessdate=2010-05-15}}</ref> Additionally, Madonna ranked seventh on VH1 and ''[[People (magazine)|People]]'' magazine's list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time."<ref>{{chú thích báo |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0307/21/se.15.html|last=Castro|first=Peter|title=Live From The Headlines| publisher=CNN| date=2003-07-21|accessdate=2010-02-29}}</ref> In 2006, a new [[Tardigrade|water bear]] species, ''Echiniscus madonnae'', was named after her.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.tardigrada.net/goodies_wallpapers.htm |title=Echiniscus madonnae|work=Tardigrada Newsletter|publisher=Michalczyk & Kaczmarek|year=2006|accessdate=2008-06-14|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080221101821/http://www.tardigrada.net/goodies_wallpapers.htm |archivedate = February 21, 2008|deadurl=yes}}</ref> The paper with the description of ''E. madonnae'' was published in the international journal of animal taxonomy ''[[Zootaxa]]'' in March 2006 (Vol. 1154, pages: 1–36). The Zoologists commented: "We take great pleasure in dedicating this species to one of the most significant artists of our times, Madonna Louise Veronica Ritchie."<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=711164 |title=Echiniscus madonnae |publisher=[[Integrated Taxonomic Information System]] |accessdate=2008-06-03}}</ref> Aside from her critical acknowledgement, Madonna has also earned overwhelming commercial accomplishments. She has achieved multiple ''[[Guinness World Records]]'' citations, including world's top-selling female recording artist and most successful female recording artist of all time.<ref name="guinness"/> Madonna has sold more than 300&nbsp;million records worldwide.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/music/u2-strike-a-chord-in-the-best-albums-from-2009-1997058.html|title=U2 strike a chord in the best albums from 2009|last=Egan|first=Barry|date=2010-01-03|work=[[The Independent]]|publisher=[[Independent News & Media]]|accessdate=2010-07-23}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/showbiz/celebrity-interviews/2011/09/09/madonna-society-is-obsessed-with-celebrity-it-s-easy-to-become-famous-now-86908-23407361/|title=Madonna: Society is obsessed with celebrity - it's easy to become famous now|first=Rick|last=Fulton|work=[[Daily Record (Scotland)|Daily Record]]|publisher=[[Trinity Mirror]]|date=2011-09-09|accessdate=2011-09-21}}</ref> According to the [[Recording Industry Association of America]] (RIAA), she is the best-selling female rock artist of the 20th century and the second [[List of best-selling music artists in the United States|top-selling female artist in the United States]], behind [[Barbra Streisand]], with 64&nbsp;million [[RIAA certification|certified]] albums.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt |title=Top Selling Artists |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of America]]|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?news_year_filter=1999&resultpage=2&id=3ABF3EC8-EF5B-58F9-E949-3B57F5E313DF|first=Press Release|title=The American Recording Industry Announces Its Artists of the Century| publisher=Recording Industry Association of America |date=1999-11-10|accessdate=2008-01-30}}</ref> Madonna là mộtlso one of the top-touring artist in history and her [[Sticky & Sweet Tour]] remains the highest-grossing tour of all time by a solo artist.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1600363/madonna-on-track-set-record-with-sticky-amp-sweet-tour.jhtml|title=Madonna On Track To Set Record With Sticky & Sweet Tour|first=Gil|last=Kaufman|publisher=MTV|date=2008-12-01|accessdate=2011-09-07}}</ref> In 2008, ''[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]'' magazine ranked Madonna at number two, behind only [[The Beatles]], on the [[Billboard Hot 100 50th Anniversary Charts|''Billboard'' Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists]], making her the most successful solo artist in the history of American singles chart.<ref name="rsinducted"/> She has also scored many hits on major international charts, including 13 number one singles in the [[List of artists who reached number one on the UK Singles Chart|United Kingdom]], 11 in [[List of artists who reached number one on the Australian singles chart|Australia]], and 23 in [[Canadian Singles Chart|Canada]]—all of which are more than any other female artist.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2008/01_january/05/one_superstars.shtml|title=The musical superstars|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích sách |last=Ryan|first=Gavin|title=ARIA Singles Chart Book 1988–2008|edition=1st|year=2009|publisher=Moonlight Publishing|location=Mt. Martha, Victoria|pages=91–92}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-110.01-e.php?PHPSESSID=v2a76h62to0aart05gg0u3agj2&q1=Madonna|title=Madonna singles discography|work=[[RPM (magazine)|RPM]]|publisher=RPM Library Archives|accessdate=2009-10-08}}</ref>
{{MainBài chính|Madonna albums discography|Madonna singles discography|Madonna videography}}
*''[[Madonna (album)|Madonna]]'' (1983)
*''[[Like a Virgin]]'' (1984)
{{MainBài chính|List of Madonna concert tours}}
*[[The Virgin Tour]] (1985)
*[[Who's That Girl World Tour]] (1987)
{{div col end}}
==SeeXem alsothêm==
{{Wikipedia books|Madonna}}
{{tham khảo|colwidth=30em}}
==ReferencesTham khảo==
*{{chú thích sách
==Liên kết ngoài==
==External links==
{{Liên kết tới các dự án khác|wikt=no|b=no|q=Madonna (entertainer)|s=no|commons=Madonna (entertainer)|n=no|v=no|species=no}}
*{{Official website|1=http://www.madonna.com}}

lần sửa đổi