Khác biệt giữa các bản “Ketamin”

Bước tới điều hướng Bước tới tìm kiếm
SLCT: <ref name="MD"> không nội dung, thẻ tìm thấy từ en.wiki
(SLCT: <ref name="MD"> không nội dung, thẻ tìm thấy từ en.wiki)
| legal_US = Schedule III
| legal_UN = Unscheduled
| routes_of_administration = {{abbrlink|IV|Intravenous therapy}}, {{abbrlink|IM|intramuscular injection}}, {{abbrlink|IT|intrathecal administration}},<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Bell|first1=RF|last2=Eccleston|first2=C|last3=Kalso|first3=EA|title=Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain.|journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews|date=28 June 2017|volume=6|pages=CD003351|doi=10.1002/14651858.CD003351.pub3|pmid=28657160}}</ref> [[insufflation (medicine)|insufflation]], [[oral administration|by mouth]], [[sublingual administration|sublingual]], {{abbrlink|SC|subcutaneous injection}}, [[epidural]],<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Moyse|first1=DW|last2=Kaye|first2=AD|last3=Diaz|first3=JH|last4=Qadri|first4=MY|last5=Lindsay|first5=D|last6=Pyati|first6=S|title=Perioperative Ketamine Administration for Thoracotomy Pain.|journal=Pain Physician|date=March 2017|volume=20|issue=3|pages=173–184|pmid=28339431}}</ref> [[intraosseous infusion|intraosseous]], [[intranasal administration|intranasal]], [[topical]], [[transdermal]]<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><ref name="MD">{{cite web|title=Ketamine Hydrochloride: Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference|date=9 January 2017|accessdate=24 August 2017|editor=Brayfield, A|publisher=Pharmaceutical Press|website=MedicinesComplete|url=https://www.medicinescomplete.com/mc/martindale/current/ms-3114-h.htm|location=London, UK}}</ref>
| addiction_liability = Low–moderate<ref name="NHM-PCP and ketamine">{{cite book |vauthors=Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE |veditors=Sydor A, Brown RY | title = Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience | year = 2009 | publisher = McGraw-Hill Medical | location = New York | isbn = 978-0-07-148127-4 | pages = 374–375 | edition = 2nd | chapter = Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders | quote= Phencyclidine (PCP or angel dust) and ketamine (also known as special K) are structurally related drugs... their reinforcing properties and risks related to compulsive abuse}}</ref><!--Start widen drugbox--><br />&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<!--End widen drugbox-->
| class = [[NMDA receptor antagonists]]; [[General anesthetics]]; [[Dissociative hallucinogen]]s; [[Analgesic]]s; [[Antidepressant]]s

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