Cốc biển

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Cốc biển
Male Frigate bird.jpg
Phân loại khoa học
Giới (regnum) Animalia
Ngành (phylum) Chordata
Lớp (class) Aves
Bộ (ordo) Suliformes
Họ (familia) Fregatidae
Degland & Gerbe, 1867
Chi (genus) Fregata
Lacépède, 1799
Range map
Range map
5 loài

Cốc biển là một chi chim biển duy nhất trong họ cùng tên Fregatidae. Có 5 loài trong chi này. Chúng có đôi cánh, đuôi, và mỏ dài và con đực có túi bướu cổ màu đỏ, nó được bơm căng lên vào mùa sinh sản để thu hút con cái.

Phân loại học[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Từ nguyên[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Họ Frigate được nhà tự nhiên học người anh Eleazar Albin sử dụng năm 1738 trong quyển A Natural History of the Birds. Quyển sách cũng minh họa chim trống red gular pouch.[1] Nó có nguồn gốc do những người đi biển Pháp đặt tên là la frégate—một loại tàu frigate.[2] Thuật ngữ này đã được nhà tự nhiên học người Pháp Jean-Baptiste du Tertre đề cập tới khi mô tả loài chim này năm 1667.[3][a]

Christopher Columbus encountered frigatebirds when passing the Cape Verde Islands on his first voyage across the Atlantic in 1492. In his journal entry for 29 September he used the word rabiforçado, modern Spanish rabihorcado or forktail.[4][5][b] In the Caribbean frigatebirds were called Man-of-War birds by English mariners. This name was used by the English explorer William Dampier in his book An Account of a New Voyage Around the World published in 1697:[6]

The Man-of-War (as it is called by the English) is about the bigness of a Kite, and in shape like it, but black; and the neck is red. It lives on Fish yet never lights on the water, but soars aloft like a Kite, and when it sees its prey, it flys down head foremost to the Waters edge, very swiftly takes its prey out of the Sea with his Bill, and immediately mounts again as swiftly; never touching the Water with his Bill. His Wings are very long; his feet are like other Land-fowl, and he builds on Trees, where he finds any; but where they are wanting on the ground.[6]

Classification[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Frigatebirds were grouped with cormorants, and sulids (gannets and boobies) as well as pelicans in the genus Pelecanus by Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae. He described the distinguishing characteristics as a straight bill hooked at the tip, linear nostrils, a bare face, and fully webbed feet.[7] The genus Fregata was defined by French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède in 1799.[8] Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot described the genus name Tachypetes in 1816 for the great frigatebird. The genus name Atagen had been coined by German naturalist Paul Möhring in 1752, though this has no validity as it predates the official beginning of Linnaean taxonomy.[9]

In 1874, English zoologist Alfred Henry Garrod published a study where he had examined various groups of birds and recorded which muscles of a selected group of five[c] they possessed or lacked. Noting that the muscle patterns were different among the steganopodes (classical Pelecaniformes), he resolved that there were divergent lineages in the group that should be in separate families, including frigatebirds in their own family Fregatidae.[10] Urless N. Lanham observed in 1947 that frigatebirds bore some skeletal characteristics more in common with Procellariiformes than Pelecaniformes, though concluded they still belonged in the latter group (as suborder Fregatae), albeit as an early offshoot.[11] Martyn Kennedy and colleagues derived a cladogram based on behavioural characteristics of the traditional Pelecaniformes, calculating the frigatebirds to be more divergent than pelicans from a core group of gannets, darters and cormorants, and tropicbirds the most distant lineage.[12] The classification of this group as the traditional Pelecaniformes, united by feet that are totipalmate (with all four toes linked by webbing) and the presence of a gular pouch, persisted until the early 1990s.[13] The DNA-DNA hybridization studies of Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist placed the frigatebirds in a lineage with penguins, loons, petrels and albatrosses.[14] Subsequent genetic studies place the frigatebirds as a sister group to the group Suloidea, which comprises the gannets and boobies, cormorants and darters.[15][16] Microscopic analysis of eggshell structure by Konstantin Mikhailov in 1995 found that the eggshells of frigatebirds resembled those of other Pelecaniformes in having a covering of thick microglobular material over the crystalline shells.[17]

Molecular studies have consistently shown that pelicans, the namesake family of the Pelecaniformes, are actually more closely related to herons, ibises and spoonbills, the hamerkop and the shoebill than to the remaining members. In recognition of this, the order comprising the frigatebirds and Suloidea was renamed Suliformes in 2010.[18][19]

In 1994 the family name Fregatidae, cited as described in 1867 by French naturalists Côme-Damien Degland and Zéphirin Gerbe, was conserved under Article 40(b) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature in preference to the 1840 description Tachypetidae by Johann Friedrich von Brandt. This was because the genus names Atagen and Tachypetes had been synonymised with Fregata before 1961, resulting in the aligning of family and genus names.[20]

Fossil record[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Fossil of Eocene species Limnofregata azygosternon

The Eocene frigatebird genus Limnofregata comprises birds whose fossil remains were recovered from prehistoric freshwater environments, unlike the marine preferences of their modern-day relatives. They had shorter less-hooked bills and longer legs, and longer slit-like nasal openings.[21] Three species have been described from fossil deposits in the western United States, two—L. azygosternon and L. hasegawai—from the Green River Formation (48–52 million years old) and one—L. hutchisoni—from the Wasatch Formation (between 53 and 55 million years of age).[22] Fossil material indistinguishable from living species dating to the Pleistocene and Holocene has been recovered from Ascension Island (for F. aquila),[23] Saint Helena Island,[24] both in the southern Atlantic Ocean, and also from various islands in the Pacific Ocean (for F. minor and F. ariel).[25][26]

A cladistic study of the skeletal and bone morphology of the classical Pelecaniformes and relatives found that the frigatebirds formed a clade with Limnofregata. Birds of the two genera have 15 cervical vertebrae, unlike almost all other Ciconiiformes, Suliformes and Pelecaniformes, which have 17. The age of Limnofregata indicates that these lineages had separated by the Eocene.[16]

Living species and infrageneric classification[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Frigatebird phylogeny[27]

Great frigatebird (Fregata minor)

Christmas frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi)

Magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)

Ascension frigatebird (Fregata aquila)

Lesser frigatebird (Fregata ariel)

The type species of the genus is the Ascension frigatebird (Fregata aquila).[28] For many years, the consensus was to recognise only two species of frigatebird, with larger birds as F. aquila and smaller as F. ariel. In 1914 the Australian ornithologist Gregory Mathews delineated five species, which remain valid.[29][27] Analysis of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA indicated that the five species had diverged from a common ancestor only recently—as little as 1.5 million years ago. There are two species pairs, the great and Christmas Island frigatebirds, and the magnificent and Ascension frigatebirds, while the fifth species, the lesser frigatebird, is an early offshoot of the common ancestor of the other four species.[27] Three subspecies of the lesser and five subspecies of the great frigatebird are recognised.[30]

Living species of frigatebirds
Common and binomial names Image Description Range
Magnificent frigatebird
(Fregata magnificens)
Mathews, 1914
Fregata magnificens -Galapagos, Ecuador -male-8 (1).jpg With a body length of 89–114 cm (35–45 in), it is the largest species and has the longest bill. The adult male is all-black with a scarlet throat pouch that is inflated like a balloon in the breeding season. Although the feathers are black, the scapular feathers have a purple sheen, in contrast to the male great frigatebird's green sheen. The female is brownish-black, but has a white breast and lower neck sides, a brown band on the wings, and a blueish-grey eye-ring.[31] Widespread in the tropical Atlantic, it breeds in colonies in trees in Florida, the Caribbean and Cape Verde Islands, as well as along the Pacific coast of the Americas from Mexico to Ecuador, including the Galápagos Islands.[32]
Ascension frigatebird
(Fregata aquila)
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Male Frigatebird with chick Fregata aquila.jpg Apart from its smaller size, the adult male is very similar to the magnificent frigate bird. The female is brownish black with a rusty brown mantle and chest, and normally lacks any white patches present on the front of female birds of other species. The occasional female observed with a white belly may be breeding before obtaining the full adult plumage.[33] It is found on Boatswain Bird Island just off Ascension Island in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, having not bred on the main island since the 1800s.[34]
Christmas frigatebird
(Fregata andrewsi)
Mathews, 1914
Christmas Island Frigatebird.JPG The adult male is the only frigatebird species with white on its belly – an egg shaped patch. It is larger with a longer bill than the related great frigatebird. Its upperparts are black with green metallic gloss on the mantle and scapulars. The female has dark upperparts with brown wing bars, a black head with white belly and white collar (sometimes incomplete) around its neck.[35] Breeds only on Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean.[36]
Great frigatebird
(Fregata minor)
(Gmelin, 1789)
Male greater frigate bird displaying.jpg The adult male has black upperparts with green metallic gloss on the mantle and scapulars. It is completely black underneath with subtle brown barring on the axillaries. The upperparts of the female are dark with lighter brown wing bars. Its head is black with a mottled throat and belly. White collar around neck.[35] Found in tropical Indian and Pacific oceans, as well as one colony—Trindade and Martim Vaz—in the south Atlantic, generally where the water is warmer than 22 °C (72 °F), and breeding on islands and atolls with sufficient vegetation to nest in.[37]
Lesser frigatebird
(Fregata ariel)
(G.R.Gray, 1845)
Lesser frigatebird lei.jpg With a body length of around 75 cm (30 in), it is the smallest species. The adult male has black upperparts with greenish to purple metallic gloss on the mantle and scapulars, and is black underneath except for bold white axillary spurs. The upperparts of the female are dark with lighter wing bars. The head is black with white belly and white collar around neck.[35] Tropical and subtropical waters across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Atlantic race trinitatis was limited to Trindade, off Eastern Brazil but may now be extinct.[38][39]

Các loài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Albin, Eleazar (1738). A Natural History of the Birds. Volume 3. London: Printed for the author and sold by William Innys. tr. 75 and plate 80 on previous page. 
  2. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. tr. 164. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  3. ^ a ă du Tertre, du Jean-Baptiste (1667). Histoire générale des Antilles habitées par les François (bằng French). Volume 2. Paris: Thomas Joly. tr. 269, Plate p. 246. 
  4. ^ Hartog, J.C. den (1993). “An early note on the occurrence of the Magnificent Frigate Bird, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, in the Cape Verde Islands: Columbus as an ornithologist”. Zoologische Mededelingen 67: 361–64. 
  5. ^ a ă Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James E. Jr (1989). The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492–1493. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. tr. 45. ISBN 0-8061-2384-2. 
  6. ^ a ă Dampier, James (1699) [1697]. An Account of a New Voyage Around the World. London, United Kingdom: James Knapton. tr. 49. 
  7. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata (bằng Latin). Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii. tr. 132–34. “Rostrum edentulum, rectum: apice adunco, unguiculato. Nares lineares. Facies nuda. Pedes digitís omnibus palmatis.” 
  8. ^ Meyer, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William biên tập (1979). Checklist of birds of the world. Volume 1 (ấn bản 2). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. tr. 159. 
  9. ^ Australian Biological Resources Study (26 tháng 8 năm 2014). “Family Fregatidae Degland & Gerbe, 1867”. Australian Faunal Directory. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australian Government. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 11 năm 2014. 
  10. ^ a ă Garrod, Alfred Henry (1874). “On certain muscles of birds and their value in classification”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 42 (1): 111–23. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1874.tb02459.x. 
  11. ^ Lanham, Urless N. (1947). “Notes on the phylogeny of the Pelecaniformes”. The Auk 64 (1): 65–70. doi:10.2307/4080063. 
  12. ^ Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G.; Gray, Russell D. (1996). “Hop, step and gape: do the social displays of the Pelecaniformes reflect phylogeny?”. Animal Behaviour 51 (2): 273–91. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0028. 
  13. ^ Hedges, S. Blair; Sibley, Charles G. (1994). “Molecules vs. morphology in avian evolution: the case of the "pelecaniform" birds”. PNAS 91 (21): 9861–65. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.21.9861. 
  14. ^ Sibley, Charles Gald; Ahlquist, Jon Edward (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-04085-2. 
  15. ^ doi:10.1126/science.1157704
    Hoàn thành chú thích này
  16. ^ a ă Smith, Nathan D. (2010). “Phylogenetic analysis of Pelecaniformes (Aves) based on osteological data: Implications for waterbird phylogeny and fossil calibration studies”. PLoS ONE 5 (10): e13354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013354. PMC 2954798. PMID 20976229. 
  17. ^ Mikhailov, Konstantin E. (1995). “Eggshell structure in the shoebill and pelecaniform birds: comparison with hamerkop, herons, ibises and storks”. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73 (9): 1754–70. doi:10.1139/z95-207. 
  18. ^ Chesser, R. Terry; Banks, Richard C.; Barker, F. Keith; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J.V. Jr; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin (2010). “Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds”. The Auk 127 (3): 726–44. doi:10.1525/auk.2010.127.3.726. 
  19. ^ “Taxonomy Version 2”. IOC World Bird List: Taxonomy Updates – v2.6 (23 October 2010). 2010. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 11 năm 2014. 
  20. ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History Issue 222. tr. 131, 166. 
  21. ^ Mayr, Gerald (2009). Paleogene Fossil Birds. New York, New York: Springer Science & Business Media. tr. 63–64. ISBN 978-3-540-89628-9. 
  22. ^ Stidham, Thomas A. (2014). “A new species of Limnofregata (Pelecaniformes: Fregatidae) from the Early Eocene Wasatch Formation of Wyoming: implications for palaeoecology and palaeobiology”. Palaeontology: 1–11. doi:10.1111/pala.12134. 
  23. ^ Ashmole, Nelson Philip (1963). “Sub-fossil bird remains on Ascension Island”. Ibis 103: 382–89. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1963.tb06761.x. 
  24. ^ Olson, Storrs L. (1975). “Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean”. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 23: 1–49. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.23.1. 
  25. ^ James, Helen F. (1987). “A late Pleistocene avifauna from the island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands”. Documents des laboratories de Géologie, Lyon 99: 221–30. 
  26. ^ Steadman, David W. (2006). Extinction and biogeography of tropical Pacific birds. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-77142-7. 
  27. ^ a ă â Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G. (2004). “Phylogenies of the frigatebirds (Fregatidae) and tropicbirds (Phaethonidae), two divergent groups of the traditional order Pelecaniformes, inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (1): 31–38. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.007. 
  28. ^ Australian Biological Resources Study (29 tháng 7 năm 2014). “Genus Fregata Lacépède, 1799”. Australian Faunal Directory. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australian Government. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 11 năm 2014. 
  29. ^ Mathews, Gregory M. (1914). “On the species and subspecies of the genus Fregata. Australian Avian Record 2 (6): 117–21. 
  30. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (23 tháng 4 năm 2015). “Hamerkop, Shoebill, Pelicans, Boobies & Cormorants”. IOC World Bird List. International Ornithologists’ Committee. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 6 năm 2015. 
  31. ^ Orta, Jaume; Christie, D.A.; Garcia, E.F.J.; Boesman, P. (2014). “Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)”. Trong del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, Sargatal; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 2015. (cần đăng ký mua)
  32. ^ Lỗi chú thích: Thẻ <ref> sai; không có nội dung trong thẻ ref có tên iucnmagn
  33. ^ Orta, Jaume; Christie, D.A.; Garcia, E.F.J.; Jutglar, F.; Boesman, P. (2014). “Ascension Frigatebird (Fregata aquila)”. Trong del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, Sargatal; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 12 năm 2014. (cần đăng ký mua)
  34. ^ BirdLife International (2014). Fregata aquila. Sách đỏ IUCN các loài bị đe dọa. Phiên bản 2014.3. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế. Truy cập ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 2014. 
  35. ^ a ă â James, David J. (2004). “Identification of Christmas Island, Great and Lesser Frigatebirds”. BirdingASIA 1: 22–38. 
  36. ^ BirdLife International (2014). Fregata andrewsi. Sách đỏ IUCN các loài bị đe dọa. Phiên bản 2014.3. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế. Truy cập ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 2014. 
  37. ^ Lỗi chú thích: Thẻ <ref> sai; không có nội dung trong thẻ ref có tên iucngrt
  38. ^ Orta, Jaume; Garcia, E.F.J.; Kirwan, G.M.; Boesman, P. “Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel)”. Trong del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 11 năm 2014. (cần đăng ký mua)
  39. ^ Alves, R.J.V.; da Silva, N.G.; Aguirre-Muñoz, A. (2011). “Return of endemic plant populations on Trindade Island, Brazil, with comments on the fauna”. Trong Veitch, CR; Clout, MN; Towns, DR. Island invasives: eradication and management : proceedings of the International Conference on Island Invasives. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. tr. 259–263. OCLC 770307954. 

Tài liệu[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Harrison, Peter (1988). Seabirds: An Identification Guide. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7470-1410-8

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Lỗi chú thích: Đã tìm thấy thẻ <ref> với tên nhóm “lower-alpha”, nhưng không tìm thấy thẻ tương ứng <references group="lower-alpha"/> tương ứng, hoặc thẻ đóng </ref> bị thiếu