Chất (bài Tây)

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Bốn chất trong bộ bài Tây: rô (), tép/nhép (♣), cơ (), bích (♠)

Trong môn chơi bài, chất (suit) là một hạng mục để chia các lá bài, gồm có bốn loại là , , tépbích.

Lịch sử[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Mỗi ngôn ngữ và vùng miền có một kiểu chia chất khác nhau, theo màu sắc, tên gọi và ký hiệu.[1][2]

Chất kiểu Latinh
Ý[a] Cups
(Coppe)
Seme coppe carte trevisane.svg
Coins
(Denari)
Seme denari carte trevisane.svg
Clubs
(Bastoni)
Seme bastoni carte trevisane.svg
Swords
(Spade)
Seme spade carte trevisane.svg
Tây Ban Nha[b] Cups
(Copas)
Seme coppe carte spagnole.svg
Coins
(Oros)
Seme denari carte spagnole.svg
Clubs
(Bastos)
Seme bastoni carte spagnole.svg
Swords
(Espadas)
Seme spade carte spagnole.svg
Kiểu German[c]
Đức - Thụy Sĩ[d] Roses[e]
RosendeutschschweizerBlatt.svg
Bells[f]
SchellendeutschschweizerBlatt.svg
Acorns[g]
EichelndeutschschweizerBlatt.svg
Shields[h]
Bouclier jeu de carte.svg
Đức Hearts[i]
Bay herz.svg
Bells[j]
Bay schellen.svg
Acorns[k]
Bay eichel.svg
Leaves[l]
Bay gras.svg
Pháp Cơ (hearts)
Suit Hearts.svg
Rô (tiles, diamonds)
SuitDiamonds.svg
Tép/Nhép (clovers, clubs)[m]
SuitClubs.svg
Bích (pikes, spades)[n]
SuitSpades.svg

Ghi chú[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Sample pips come from the Venetian pattern
  2. ^ Sample pips come from the Castilian pattern
  3. ^ The French suit system is generally considered to be separate from the Germans and Swiss due to its different set of face cards. However, when comparing only the pips, it is Germanic.
  4. ^ There does not appear to be a single universal system of correspondences between Swiss-German and French suits. Cards combining the two suit systems are manufactured in different versions with different combinations of suits.
  5. ^ Swiss-German: Rosen
  6. ^ Swiss-German: Schellen
  7. ^ Swiss-German: Eichel
  8. ^ Swiss-German: Schilten
  9. ^ German: Herz (heart), Rot (red), Hungarian: Piros (red), Czech: Srdce (heart), Červené (red)
  10. ^ German: Schellen (bells), Hungarian: Tök (pumpkin), Czech: Kule (balls)
  11. ^ German: Eichel (acorn), Ecker (beechnut), Hungarian: Makk (acorn), Czech: Žaludy (acorns)
  12. ^ German: Laub (leaves), Grün (green), Gras (grass), Blatt (leaf) Hungarian: Zöld (green), Czech: Listy (leaves), Zelené (green)
  13. ^ The shape of the clubs symbol is believed to be an adaptation of the German suit of acorns. Clubs are also known as clovers, flowers and crosses. The French name for the suit is trèfles meaning clovers, the Italian name for the suit is fiori meaning flowers and the German name for the suit is Kreuz meaning cross.
  14. ^ In the Germanic countries the spade was the symbol associated with the blade of a spade. The English term spade originally did not refer to the tool but was derived from the Spanish word espada meaning sword from the Spanish suit. Those symbols were later changed to resemble the digging tool instead to avoid confusion. In German and Dutch the suit is alternatively named Schippen and schoppen respectively, meaning shovels.

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Parlett, David (1990). The Oxford Guide to Card Games. Oxford: Oxford University Press. tr. 27–34. 
  2. ^ McLeod, John. Games classified by type of cards or tiles used tại pagat.com. Truy cập 24 tháng 3 năm 2017.

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