Danh sách các nhà phát minh

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Danh sách các nhà phát minh được ghi nhận.

Danh sách theo bảng chữ cái[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

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I[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Gavriil Ilizarov (1921–1992), Russia – Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis
  • Mamoru Imura (born 1948), Japan – RFIQin (automatic cooking device)
  • Daisuke Inoue (born 1940), Japan – Karaoke machine
  • János Irinyi (1817–1895), Hungary – noiseless match
  • Ub Iwerks (1901–1971), U. S. – Multiplane camera for animation

J[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Moritz von Jacobi (1801–1874), Germany/Russia – electrotyping, electric boat
  • Rudolf Jaenisch (born 1942), Germany/USA – first Genetically modified mouse
  • Karl Guthe Jansky (1905–1950), USA – radio telescope
  • Karl Jatho (1873–1933), Germany – aeroplane
  • Ali Javan (1926–2016), together with William R. Bennett, Jr. (1930–2008), Iran/USA – Gas laser (Helium-Neon)
  • Al-Jazari (1136–1206), Iraq – crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage
  • Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar) (895–979), Tunisia – sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs
  • Ányos Jedlik (1800–1898), Hungary – Jedlik dynamo
  • Alec John Jeffreys (born 1950), United Kingdom – DNA profiling (forensics)
  • Charles Francis Jenkins (1867–1934) – television and movie projector (Phantoscope)
  • Steve Jobs (1955–2011), USA – máy tính Apple Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, iPad and other devices and software operating systems and applications.
  • Amos Edward Joel, Jr. (1918–2008) USA – electrical engineer, known for several contributions and over seventy patents related to telecommunications switching systems
  • Carl Edvard Johansson (1864–1943), Sweden – Gauge blocks
  • Johan Petter Johansson (1853–1943), Sweden – the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner
  • Reynold B. Johnson (1906–1998), USA – Hard disk drive
  • Philipp von Jolly (1809–1884), Germany – Jolly balance
  • Scott A. Jones (born 1960), USA – created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine
  • Tom Parry Jones (1935–2013), United Kingdom – first electronic Breathalyzer
  • Assen Jordanoff (1896–1967), Bulgaria – airbag
  • Anatol Josepho (1894–1980), patented the first coin-operated photo booth called the "Photomaton" in 1925.
  • Marjorie Joyner (1896–1994), USA – Permanent wave machine
  • Whitcomb Judson (1836–1909), USA – zipper
  • Percy Lavon Julian (1899–1975), USA – chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants
  • Ma Jun (fl. 220–265), China – south-pointing chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms

K[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Mikhail Kalashnikov (1919–2013), Russia – AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)
  • Bob Kahn (born 1938), together with Vint Cerf (born 1943), USA – Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  • Dawon Kahng (1931–1992), South Korea, together with Simon Sze (born 1936), Taiwan/USA – Floating-gate MOSFET
  • Dean Kamen (born 1951), USA – Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device
  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853–1926), Netherlands – liquid helium
  • Nikolay Kamov (1902–1973), Russia – armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters
  • Pyotr Kapitsa (1894–1984), Russia – first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions
  • Georgi Karpechenko (1899–1941), Russia – rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)
  • Jamshīd al-Kāshī (c. 1380–1429), Persia/Iran – plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer
  • Yevgeny Kaspersky (born 1965), Russia – Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products
  • Andrew Kay (1919–2014), USA – Digital voltmeter
  • Adolphe Kégresse (1879–1943), France/Russia – Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission
  • Carl D. Keith (1920–2008), together with John J. Mooney (c. 1928–), USA – three way catalytic converter
  • Mstislav Keldysh (1911–1978), Latvia/Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov
  • John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943), cornflake breakfasts
  • John G. Kemeny (1926–1992), together with Thomas E. Kurtz (born 1928), Hungary/USA – BASIC (programming language)
  • Alexander Kemurdzhian (1921–2003), Russia – first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
  • William Saville-Kent (1845–1908), UK/Australia – Pearl culture, see also Mikimoto Kōkichi
  • Kerim Kerimov (1917–2003), Azerbaijan and Russia – co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station
  • Charles F. Kettering (1876–1958), USA – invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more
  • Fazlur Khan (1929–1982), Bangladesh – structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers
  • Yulii Khariton (1904–1996), Russia – chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
  • Anatoly Kharlampiev (1906–1979), Russia – Sambo (martial art)
  • Al-Khazini (fl.1115–1130), Persia/Iran – hydrostatic balance
  • Konstantin Khrenov (1894–1984), Russia – underwater welding
  • Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi (c. 940–1000), Persia/Iran – astronomical sextant
  • Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi) (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran – modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square
  • Marcel Kiepach (1894-1915), Croatia – dynamo, maritime compass that indicates north regardless of the presence of iron or magnetic forces
  • Erhard Kietz (1909–1982), Germany & USA. – signal improvements for video transmissions
  • Jack Kilby (1923–2005), USA – patented the first integrated circuit
  • Al-Kindi (Alkindus) (801–873), Iraq/Yemen – ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis
  • Petrus Jacobus Kipp (1808–1864), The Netherlands – Kipp's apparatus (chemistry)
  • Steve Kirsch (born 1956), USA – Chuột quang
  • Fritz Klatte (1880–1934), Germany – vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride
  • Yves Klein (1928–1962), France – International Klein Blue
  • Margaret E. Knight (1838–1914), USA – machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags
  • Tom Knight (? –), USA – BioBricks (synthetic biology)
  • Ivan Knunyants (1906–1990), Armenia/Russia – capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6
  • Robert Koch (1843–1910), Germany – method for culturing bacteria on solid media
  • Willem Johan Kolff (1911–2009), Netherlands – artificial kidney hemodialysis machine
  • Rudolf Kompfner (1909–1977), USA – Traveling-wave tube
  • Konstantin Konstantinov (1817 or 1819–1871), Russia – device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine
  • Sergey Korolyov (1907–1966), USSR – first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)
  • Nikolai Korotkov (1874–1920), Russian empire – auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
  • Semen Korsakov (1787–1853), Russian Empire – punched card for information storage
  • Mikhail Koshkin (1898–1940), Russia – T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II
  • Ognjeslav Kostović (1851–1916), Serbia/Russia – arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)
  • Gleb Kotelnikov (1872–1944), Russia – knapsack parachute, drogue parachute
  • William Justin Kroll (1889–1973), Luxemburg/USA – Kroll process
  • Alexei Krylov (1863–1945), Russia – gyroscopic damping of ships
  • Ivan Kulibin (1735–1818), Russia – egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph
  • Shen Kuo (1031–1095), China – improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube
  • Igor Kurchatov (1903–1960), Russia – first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships
  • Thomas E. Kurtz (born 1928), together with John G. Kemeny (1926–1992), USA/Hungary – BASIC (programming language)
  • Raymond Kurzweil (born 1948), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner
  • Ken Kutaragi (born 1950), Nhật – PlayStation
  • Stephanie Kwolek (1923–2014), USA – Kevlar
  • John Howard Kyan (1774–1850), Ireland – The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation

L[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Dmitry Lachinov (1842–1902), Russia – mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, electrolyser
  • René Laennec (1781–1826), France – stethoscope
  • Georges Lakhovsky (1869–1942), Russia/USA – Multiple Wave Oscillator
  • Hedy Lamarr (1913–2000), Austria and USA – Spread spectrum radio
  • Edwin H. Land (1909–1991), USA – Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera
  • Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906), USA – bolometer
  • Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (1847-1923), Russia - incandescent lamp
  • Irving Langmuir (1851–1957), USA – gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding
  • Norm Larsen (1923–1970), USA – a.o. WD-40
  • Lewis Latimer (1848–1928), USA – Invented the modern day light bulb
  • Gustav de Laval (1845–1913), Sweden – invented the milk separator and the milking machine
  • Semyon Lavochkin (1900–1960), Russia – La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
  • John Bennet Lawes (1814–1900), UK – superphosphate or chemical fertilizer
  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901–1958), USA – Cyclotron
  • Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia – Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history
  • Sergei Lebedev (1874–1934), Russia – commercially viable synthetic rubber
  • William Lee (1563–1614), UK – Stocking frame knitting machine
  • Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), The Netherlands – development of the microscope
  • Jerome H. Lemelson (1923–1997), USA – Inventions in the fields in which he patented make possible, wholly or in part, innovations like automated warehouses, industrial robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders, and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony's Walkman tape players.
  • Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822–1900), Belgium – internal combustion engine, motorboat
  • Giacomo da Lentini (13th Century), Italy – Sonnet
  • R. G. LeTourneau (1888–1969), USA – electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers
  • Rasmus Lerdorf (born 1968), Greenland/Canada – PHP (programming language)
  • Willard Frank Libby (1908–1980), USA – radiocarbon dating
  • Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), Germany – nitrogen-based fertilizer
  • Hon Lik (born 1951), Chinese. electronic cigarette
  • Otto Lilienthal (1848–1896), Germany – hang glider
  • Lin Yutang (1895–1976), China/USA – Chinese language typewriter
  • Charles Lindbergh (1902–1974), USA – organ perfusion pump
  • Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist (1862–1931), Sweden – Kerosene stove operated by compressed air
  • Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), Sweden – formal Binomial nomenclature for living organisms, Horologium Florae
  • Hans Lippershey (1570–1619), The Netherlands – telescope
  • Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (1845–1921), France – Lippmann plate, Integral imaging, Lippmann electrometer
  • Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan FyodorovichNazar Fyodorovich, Russia – samovar (the first documented makers)
  • William Howard Livens (1889–1964), UK – chemical warfare – Livens Projector
  • Eduard Locher (1840–1910), Switzerland – Locher rack railway system
  • Alexander Lodygin (1847–1923), Russia – electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
  • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), Russia – night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt
  • Yury Lomonosov (1876–1952), Russia/United Kingdom – first successful mainline diesel locomotive
  • Aleksandr Loran (1849 – after 1911), Russia – fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher
  • Oleg Losev (1903–1942), Russia – light-emitting diode, crystadine
  • Antoine Louis (1723–1792), France – Guillotine
  • Archibald Low (1882–1956), Britain – Pioneer of radio guidance systems
  • Ed Lowe (1920–1995), USA – Cat litter
  • Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy (1909–2001), Russia – Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project
  • Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822–1882), Poland – modern kerosene lamp
  • Auguste and Louis Lumière (1862–1954 and 1864–1948, resp.), France – Cinématographe
  • Cai Lun, 蔡倫 (50–121 AD), China – paper
  • Giovanni Luppis or Ivan Vukić (1813–1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Croatian, from Rijeka) – self-propelled torpedo
  • Richard F. Lyon (born 1952), USA – Optical mouse
  • Arkhip Lyulka (1908–1984), Russia – first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines

M[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Charles Macintosh (1766–1843), Scotland – waterproof raincoat, life vest
  • Theodore Maiman (1927–2007), USA – Laser, see also Gordon Gould
  • Ahmed Majan (born 1963), UAE – instrumented racehorse saddle and others
  • Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany – Orbitrap mass spectrometer
  • Stepan Makarov (1849–1904), Russia – Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
  • Victor Makeev (1924–1985), Russia – first submarine-launched ballistic missile
  • Nestor Makhno (1888–1934), Ukraine/Russia – tachanka
  • Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov (1896–1964), Russia – Maksutov telescope
  • Annie Malone (1869–1957), USA – Cosmetics for African American women
  • Sergey Malyutin (1859–1937), Russia – designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)
  • Al-Ma'mun (786–833), Iraq – singing bird automata, terrestrial globe
  • Boris Mamyrin (1919–2007), Russia – reflectron (ion mirror)
  • George William Manby (1765–1854), UK – Fire extinguisher
  • Joy Mangano (born 1956), USA – household appliances
  • Charles Mantoux (1877–1947), France – Mantoux test (tuberculosis)
  • Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), Italy – radio telegraphy
  • Gheorghe Marinescu (1863–1938), Romania – the first science films in the world in the neurology clinic in Bucharest (1898–1901)
  • Sylvester Marsh (1803–1884), USA – Marsh rack railway system
  • Konosuke Matsushita (1894–1989), Japan – a.o. battery-powered Bicycle lighting
  • Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf (1526–1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey – steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant
  • John Landis Mason (1826–1902), USA – Mason jars
  • Fujio Masuoka (born 1943), Japan – Flash memory
  • John W. Mauchly (1907–1980), USA – ENIAC – the first general purpose programmable digital computer
  • Henry Maudslay (1771–1831), UK – screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer
  • Hiram Maxim (1840–1916), USA born, UK – First self-powered machine gun
  • James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) and Thomas Sutton, Scotland – color photography
  • Stanley Mazor (born 1941), USA – microprocessor
  • John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836), Scotland – improved "macadam" road surface
  • Elijah McCoy (1843–1929), Canada – Displacement lubricator
  • Nicholas McKay, Sr. (1920–2014), USA – Lint roller
  • James McLurkin (born 1972), USA – Ant robotics (robotics)
  • Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845–1916), Russia – probiotics
  • Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès (1817–1880), France – margarine
  • Mordecai Meirowitz (born c. 1925), Roumania / Israel – Mastermind (board game)
  • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907), Russia – Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion
  • George de Mestral (1907–1990), Switzerland – Velcro
  • Robert Metcalfe (born 1946), USA – Ethernet
  • Antonio Meucci (1808–1889), Italy/USA – a.o. various early telephones, a hygrometer, a milk test
  • Édouard Michelin (1859–1940), France – pneumatic tire
  • Anthony Michell (1870–1959), Australia – tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine
  • Artem Mikoyan (1905–1970), Armenia/Russia – MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraftMiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)
  • Alexander Mikulin (1895–1985), Russia – Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank
  • Mikhail Mil (1909–1970), Russia – Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)
  • David L. Mills (born 1938), USA – a.o. Fuzzball router, Network Time Protocol
  • Marvin Minsky (1927–2016), USA – a.o. Confocal microscopy
  • Tokushichi Mishima (1893–1975), Japan – MKM magnetic steel
  • C. Mohan (born 1955), USA - ARIES (Computer science)
  • Pavel Molchanov (1893–1941), Russia – radiosonde
  • Jules Montenier (1895–1962), USA – modern anti-perspirant deodorant
  • Montgolfier brothers (1740–1810) and (1745–1799), France – hot air balloon
  • John J. Montgomery (1858–1911), USA – heavier-than-air gliders
  • Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol (1819–1885), Spain – steam powered submarine
  • Robert Moog (1934–2005), USA – the Moog synthesizer
  • John J. Mooney (born 1929), together with Carl D. Keith (1920–2008), USA – three way catalytic converter
  • Roland Moreno (1945–2012), France – inventor of the smart card
  • Samuel Morey (1762–1843), USA – internal combustion engine
  • Garrett A. Morgan (1877–1963), USA – inventor of the smoke hood
  • Alexander Morozov (1904–1979), Russia – T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34
  • Walter Frederick Morrison (1920–2010), USA – Flying disc
  • William Morrison (dentist) (1860–1926), USA – a.o. Cotton candy machine
  • Samuel Morse (1791–1872), USA – early Morse code, see also Morse Code controversy
  • Sergei Ivanovich Mosin (1849–1902), Russia – Mosin–Nagant rifle
  • Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s–1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?–1750), Russia – Tsar Bell
  • Vera Mukhina (1889–1953), Russia – welded sculpture
  • Kary Mullis (born 1944), USA – PCR
  • Fe del Mundo (1911–2011), The Philippines – medical incubator made out of bamboo for use in rural communities without electrical power
  • Colin Murdoch (1929–2008), New Zealand – a.o. Tranquillizer gun, disposable hypodermic syringe
  • William Murdoch (1754–1839), Scotland – Gas lighting
  • Jozef Murgas (1864–1929), Slovakia – inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)
  • Evgeny Murzin (1914–1970), Russia – ANS synthesizer
  • Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800–873), Ahmad (803–873), Al-Hasan (810–873), Iraq – mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine
  • Elon Musk (born 1971)
  • Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692–1761), Netherlands – Leyden jar, pyrometer
  • Walton Musser (1909–1998), USA – Harmonic drive gear
  • Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), UK – motion picture

N[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Georgi Nadjakov (1896–1981), Bulgaria – wikt:photoelectret
  • Alexander Nadiradze (1914–1987), Georgia/Russia – first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)
  • Nagai Nagayoshi (1844–1929), Japan – Methamphetamine
  • James Naismith (1861–1939), Canadian born, USA – invented basketball and American football helmet
  • Yoshiro Nakamatsu (born 1928), Japan – "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter
  • Shuji Nakamura (born 1954), Japan – Blue laser
  • John Napier (1550–1617), Scotland – logarithms
  • Andrey Nartov (1683–1756), Russia – first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screwmechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge–boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight
  • James Nasmyth (1808–1890), Scotland – steam hammer
  • Giulio Natta (1903–1979), together with Karl Ziegler (1898–1973), Italy/Germany – Ziegler–Natta catalyst
  • Nebuchadrezzar II (634–562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw, screwpump
  • Erwin Neher (born 1944), together with Bert Sakmann (1942–), Germany – Patch clamp technique
  • Ted Nelson (born 1937), USA – Hypertext, Hypermedia
  • Sergey Nepobedimiy (1921–2014), Russia – first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry
  • Karl Nessler (1872–1951), Germany/USA – a.o. Permanent wave machine, artificial eyebrows
  • Bernard de Neumann (born 1943), United Kingdom - massively parallel self-configuring multi-processor
  • John von Neumann (1903–1957), Hungary – Von Neumann computer architecture
  • Isaac Newton (1642–1727), UK – reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)
  • Miguel Nicolelis (born 1961), Brazil – Brain-machine interfaces
  • Joseph Nicephore Niépce (1765–1833), France – photography
  • Nikolai Nikitin (1907–1973), Russia – prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)
  • Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940), Germany – Nipkow disk
  • Jun-Ichi Nishizawa (born 1926), Japan – Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode
  • Alfred Nobel (1833–1896) Thụy Điển – thuốc nổ
  • Ludvig Nobel (1831–1888), Sweden/Russia – first successful oil tanker
  • Emmy Noether (1882–1935), Germany, groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics; Noether's Theorem
  • Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770), France – Electroscope
  • Wilhelm Normann (1870–1939), Germany – Hydrogenation of fats
  • Carl Richard Nyberg (1858–1939), Sweden – the blowtorch

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P[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Q[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

R[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Jacob Rabinow (1910–1999), USA – a.o. Magnetic particle clutch, various Phonograph-related patents
  • John Goffe Rand (1801–1873), USA – Tube (container)
  • Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865–965), Persia/Iran – distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide
  • Alec Reeves (1902–1971), UK – Pulse-code modulation
  • Karl von Reichenbach (1788–1869), Germany – paraffin, creosote oil, phenol
  • Tadeus Reichstein (1897–1996), Poland/Switzerland – Reichstein process (industrial vitamin C synthesis)
  • Ira Remsen (1846–1927), USA – saccharin
  • Ralf Reski (born 1958), Germany – Moss bioreactor 1998
  • Josef Ressel (1793–1857), Czechoslovakia – ship propeller
  • Ri Sung-gi (1905–1996), North Korea – Vinylon
  • Charles Francis Richter (1900–1985), USA – Richter magnitude scale
  • Adolph Rickenbacker (1886–1976), Switzerland – Electric guitar
  • Hyman George Rickover (1900–1986), USA – Nuclear submarine
  • Niklaus Riggenbach (1817–1899), Switzerland – Riggenbach rack railway system, Counter-pressure brake
  • Dennis Ritchie (1941–2011), USA – C (programming language)
  • Gilles de Roberval (1602–1675), France – Roberval balance
  • John Roebuck (1718–1794) UK – lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis
  • Francis Rogallo (1912–2009), USA – Rogallo wing
  • Heinrich Rohrer (1933–2013), together with Gerd Binnig (1947–), Switzerland/Germany – Scanning tunneling microscope
  • Peter I the Great (Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov), Tsar and Emperor of Russia (1672–1725), Russia – decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)
  • Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), Germany – the X-ray machine
  • Ida Rosenthal (1886–1973), Belarus/Russia/United States – modern bra (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)
  • Sidney Rosenthal (1907–1979), USA – Magic Marker
  • Eugene Roshal (born 1972), Russia – FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver
  • Boris Rosing (1869–1933), Russia – CRT television (first television system using CRT on the receiving side)
  • Guido van Rossum (born 1956), The Netherlands – Python (programming language)
  • Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier (1754–1785), France – Rozière balloon
  • Ernő Rubik (born 1944), Hungary – khối Rubik, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock
  • Ernst Ruska (1906–1988), Germany – electron microscope

S[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Albert Bruce Sabin (1906–1993), USA – oral Polio vaccine
  • Alexander Sablukov (1783–1857), Russia – centrifugal fan
  • Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu (1385–1468), Turkey – illustrated surgical atlas
  • Gilles Saint-Hilaire (born 1948), Canada – Quasiturbine, Qurbine
  • Andrei Sakharov (1921–1989), Russia – invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak
  • Jonas Edward Salk (1914–1995), USA – injection Polio vaccine
  • Franz San Galli (1824–1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) – radiator, modern central heating
  • Frederick Sanger (1918–2013), USA – Sanger sequencing (= DNA sequencing)
  • Larry Sanger (born 1968), together with Jimmy Wales, USA – Wikipedia
  • Yoshiyuki Sankai (c. 1957–), Japan – Robotic exoskeleton for motion support (medicine)
  • Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873–1932), Brazil – non-rigid airship and airplane
  • Arthur William Savage (1857–1938) – radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle
  • Thomas Savery (1650–1715), UK – steam engine
  • Adolphe Sax (1814–1894), Belgium – saxophone
  • Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906–1993), USA – a.o. Cloud seeding by dry ice
  • Bela Schick (1877–1967), Hungary – diphtheria test
  • Hugo Schiff (1834–1915), Germany – Schiff test (histology)
  • Pavel Schilling (1786–1837), Estonia/Russia – first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse
  • Gilmore Schjeldahl (1912–2002), USA – Airsickness bag
  • Hubert Schlafly (1919–2011), USA – Teleprompter = Autocue
  • Wilhelm Schlenk (1879–1943), Germany – Schlenk flask (chemistry)
  • Bernhard Schmidt (1879–1935), Estonia/Germany – Schmidt camera
  • Otto Schmitt (1913–1998), USA – Schmitt trigger (electronics)
  • Christian Schnabel (1878–1936), German – simplistic food cutleries
  • Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (born 1946), Netherlands – Major contributor to development of Compact Disc
  • August Schrader (1807–1894), USA – Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire
  • David Schwarz (1852–1897), Croatia, – rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
  • Raymond Scott (1908–1994), USA — inventor and developer of electronic music technology
  • Marc Seguin (1786–1875), France – wire-cable suspension bridge
  • Hanaoka Seishū (1760–1835), Japan – General anaesthetic
  • Ted Selker (inv. 1987), USA – Pointing stick
  • Sennacherib (705–681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw pump
  • Léon Serpollet (1858–1907), France – Flash boiler, Gardner-Serpollet steam car
  • Iwan Serrurier (1878–1953), Netherlands/USA – inventor of the Moviola for film editing
  • Mark Serrurier (1904–1988), USA – Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes
  • Gerhard Sessler (born 1931), Germany – foil electret microphone, silicon microphone
  • Guy Severin (1926–2008), Russia – extra-vehicular activity supporting system
  • Ed Seymour (inv. c. 1949), USA – Aerosol paint
  • Leonty Shamshurenkov (1687–1758), Russia – first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge
  • Ibn al-Shatir (1304–1375), Syria – "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial
  • Bi Sheng (Chinese: 畢昇) (c. 990–1051), China – clay movable type printing
  • Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973–1025), Japan – tiểu thuyết tâm lí
  • Pyotr Shilovsky (1871–1957), Russia/United Kingdom – gyrocar
  • Masatoshi Shima (born 1943), Japan – microprocessor
  • Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), Mughal India – early volley gun
  • Joseph Shivers (1920–2014), USA – Spandex
  • William Bradford Shockley (1910–1989), Mỹ – đồng phát minh transistor
  • Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), UK – Shrapnel shell ammunition
  • Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939), Russia – thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot
  • Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor (born 1972), Malaysia – cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space
  • Augustus Siebe (1788–1872), Germany/UK – Inventor of the standard diving dress
  • Sir William Siemens (1823–1883), Germany – regenerative furnace
  • Werner von Siemens (1816–1892), Germany – a.o. electric elevator, Electromote (= first trolleybus), an early Dynamo
  • Al-Sijzi (c. 945–1020), Persia/Iran – heliocentric astrolabe
  • Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972), Russia/USA – first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
  • Bernard Silver (1924–1963), together with Norman Joseph Woodland (1921–2012), USA – Barcode
  • Kia Silverbrook (born 1958), Australia – Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor
  • Vladimir Simonov (born 1935), Russia – APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol
  • Charles Simonyi (born 1948), Hungary – Hungarian notation
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037), Persia/Iran – steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker
  • Isaac Singer (1811–1875), USA – sewing machine
  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), USA – Operant conditioning chamber
  • Nikolay Slavyanov (1854–1897), Russia – shielded metal arc welding
  • Alexander Smakula (1900–1983), Ukraine/Russia/USA – anti-reflective coating
  • Michael Smith (1932–2000), USA – Site-directed mutagenesis (molecular biology)
  • Oliver Smithies (1925–2017), together with Sir Martin John Evans (born 1941), and Mario Ramberg Capecchi (born 1937), USA – Knockout mouse, Gene targeting
  • Yefim Smolin, Russia – table-glass (stakan granyonyi)
  • Friedrich Soennecken (1848–1919), Germany – Ring binder, Hole punch
  • Su Song (1020–1101), China – đĩa xích đầu tiên
  • Marin Soljačić (born 1974), Croatia – Resonant inductive coupling
  • Edwin Southern (born 1938), USA – Southern blot (molecular biology)
  • Alfred P. Southwick (1826–1898), USA – Electric chair
  • Igor Spassky (born 1926), Russia – Sea Launch platform
  • Percy Spencer (1894–1970), USA – microwave oven
  • Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860–1930), USA – gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
  • Lyman Spitzer (1914–1997), USA – Stellarator (physics)
  • Bhargav Sri Prakash (born 1977), India/USA – Learnification platform at FriendsLearn, Virtual Reality System, electromagnetic collision avoidance system, OBD based in-vehicle powertrain performance measurement, rate based driver controls for drive by wire systems
  • Ladislas Starevich (1882–1965), Russia/France – puppet animation, live-action/animated film
  • Gary Starkweather (born 1938), USA – laser printer, color management
  • Boris Stechkin (1891–1969), Russia – co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines
  • George Stephenson (1781–1848), UK – steam railway
  • Simon Stevin (1548–1620), Netherlands – land yacht
  • Andreas Stihl (1896–1973), Switzerland/Germany – Electric chain saw
  • Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790–1878), Scotland – Stirling engine
  • Aurel Stodola (1859–1942), Slovakia – gas turbines
  • Aleksandr Stoletov (1839–1896), Russia – first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
  • Levi Strauss (1829–1902), USA – blue jeans
  • John Stringfellow (1799–1883), UK – aerial steam carriage
  • Bjarne Stroustrup (born 1950), Denmark – C++ (programming language)
  • Almon Strowger (1839–1902), USA – automatic telephone exchange
  • Emil Strub (1858–1909), Switzerland – Strub rack railway system
  • Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) (903–986), Persia/Iran – timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe
  • Kyota Sugimoto (1882–1972), Japan – Japanese language typewriter
  • Mutsuo Sugiura (1918–1986), Japan – Esophagogastroduodenoscope
  • Pavel Sukhoi (1895–1975), Russia – Su-series fighter aircraft
  • Simon Sunatori (born 1959), Canada – inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer
  • Sushruta (600 BC), Vedic India – inventor of Plastic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty
  • Theodor Svedberg (1884–1971), Sweden – Analytical ultracentrifuge
  • Joseph Swan (1828–1914), UK – Incandescent light bulb
  • Robert Swanson (1905–1994), Canada – Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives
  • Remi Swierczek (born 1958), Poland – Inventor of Music Identification System and the Mico Changer (coin hopper and dispenser used in casinos)
  • Andrei Sychra (c.1773/76–1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent – Russian seven-string guitar
  • Vladimir Syromyatnikov (1933–2006), Russia – Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
  • Simon Sze (born 1936), Taiwan/USA, together with Dawon Kahng (1931–1992), South Korea – Floating-gate MOSFET
  • Leó Szilárd (1898–1964), Hungary/USA – Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project

T[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Muhammad Salih Tahtawi (fl.1659–1660), Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe
  • Gyula Takátsy (1914–1980), Hungary – first Microtiter plate
  • Esther Takeuchi (born 1953) – holds more than 150 US-patents, the largest number for any woman in the United States
  • Igor Tamm (1895–1971), Russia – co-developer of tokamak
  • Ching W. Tang (born 1947), Hong Kong/USA, together with Steven Van Slyke, USA – OLED
  • Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi (c. 1187), Middle East – counterweight trebuchet, mangonel
  • Gustav Tauschek (1899–1945), Austria – Drum memory
  • Kenyon Taylor (inv. 1961), USA – Flip-disc display
  • Bernard Tellegen (1900–1990), Netherlands – pentode
  • Edward Teller (1908–2003), Hungary – hydrogen bomb
  • Eli Terry (1772–1852)
  • Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), Croatia/Serbia – induction motor, high-voltage / high-frequency power experiments, the transmission of electrical power
  • Léon Theremin (1896–1993), Russia – theremin, interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)
  • Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (1785–1870), France – Arithmometer
  • Elihu Thomson (1853–1937), UK, USA – Prolific inventor, Arc lamp and many others
  • William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), United Kingdom – Kelvin absolute temperature scale
  • Eric Tigerstedt (1887–1925), Finland – Sound-on-film, triode vacuum tube
  • Kalman Tihanyi (1897–1947), Hungary – co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope
  • Mikhail Tikhonravov (1900–1974), Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks
  • Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov (1875–1960), Russia – feathering spectrograph
  • Benjamin Chew Tilghman (1821–1897), USA – sandblasting
  • Fedor Tokarev (1871–1968), Russia – TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle
  • Ray Tomlinson (inv. 1971), USA – First inter-computer email
  • Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647), Italy – barometer
  • Alfred Traeger (1895–1980), Australia – Pedal radio
  • Richard Trevithick (1771–1833), UK – high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive
  • Franc Trkman (1903–1978), Slovenia – electrical switches, accessories for opening windows
  • Hans Tropsch (1889–1935), together with Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (1877–1947), Germany – Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process)
  • Yuri Trutnev (born 1927), Russia – co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
  • Roger Y. Tsien (1952–2016), together with Osamu Shimomura (born 1928) and Martin Chalfie (born 1947), USA – Discovery and development of Green fluorescent protein
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), Russia – spaceflight
  • Mikhail Tsvet (1872–1919), Russia – chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
  • Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001), Russia – the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
  • Andrei Tupolev (1888–1972), Russia – turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)
  • Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201–1274), Persia/Iran – observatory, Tusi-couple
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1135–1213), Persia/Iran – linear astrolabe

U[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Shintaro Uda (1869–1976), together with Hidetsugu Yagi (1886–1976), Japan – Yagi-Uda antenna
  • Lewis Urry (1927–2004), Canada – long-lasting alkaline battery
  • Tomislav Uzelac, Croatia – first successful MP3 player, AMP

V[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

W[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

X[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Y[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Pavel Yablochkov (1847–1894), Russia – Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
  • Hidetsugu Yagi (1886–1976), together with Shintaro Uda (1896–1976), Japan – Yagi-Uda antenna
  • Alexander Yakovlev (1906–1989), Russia – Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
  • Linus Yale, Jr. (1821–1868), USA – cylinder lock
  • Linus Yale, Sr. (1797–1858), USA Penetomas – pin tumbler lock
  • Shunpei Yamazaki (born 1942), Japan – patents in a.o. computer science and solid-state physics, see List of prolific inventors
  • Gazi Yasargil (born 1925), Turkey – Microneurosurgery
  • Ryōichi Yazu (1878–1908), Japan – Yazu Arithmometer
  • Gunpei Yokoi (1941–1997), Japan – Game Boy
  • Arthur M. Young (1905–1995), USA – the Bell Helicopter
  • Vladimir Yourkevitch (1885–1964), Russia/France/USA – modern ship hull design
  • Tu Youyou (born 1930), China – Artemisinin
  • Sergei Yudin (1891–1954), Russia – cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations
  • Muhammad Yunus (born 1940), Bangladesh – microcredit, microfinance
  • Abu Yusuf Yaqub (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain – siege cannon
  • Abraham Albert Yuzpe (inv. c. 1974), USA – Yuzpe regimen (= form of Emergency contraception)

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