Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 4

Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Buớc tưới chuyển hướng Bước tới tìm kiếm
I-4.svg
Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 4
Interstate 4 map.png
Thông tin về xa lộ
Chiều dài: 132,3 dặm (212,91 km)[1][2]
Hiện diện: 1957 đến nay
Các điểm giao tiếp chính
Đầu tây: I-275.svg I-275 tại Tampa

US 41.svg US 41 tại Tampa
US 92.svgUS 301.svg US 92/US 301 gần Tampa
I-75.svg I-75 gần Tampa
US 98.svg US 98 tại Lakeland
US 27.svg US 27 gần Davenport
US 192.svg US 192 tại Celebration
Florida's Turnpike shield.png Xa lộ thu phí Florida tại Orlando
Florida 408.svg SR 408 tại Orlando
US 17.svgUS 92.svgUS 441.svg US 92/US 441 tại Orlando

Đầu đông: I-95.svgFlorida 400.svg I-95 / SH 400 tại Daytona Beach
Liên kết đến hệ thống
Hệ thống Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang
Chính yếu • Phụ trợ • Thương mại

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 4 (tiếng Anh: Interstate 4 hay viết tắc là I-4) là một xa lộ liên tiểu bang nội tiểu bang dài 132,3 dặm (212,9 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] nằm hoàn toàn bên trong tiểu bang Florida. Nó đi từ I-275 trong thành phố Tampa, Florida đến I-95 tại thành phố Daytona Beach, Florida. Nó cũng có biển dấu của Bộ Giao thông Florida đặt cho là Đường Tiểu bang 400 (SR 400) nhưng chỉ có một đoạn đường nhỏ được cắm biển ở đầu phía đông. I-4 hiện nay là xa lộ liên tiểu bang mang số nhỏ nhất nằm bên trong Hoa Kỳ Lục địa. Khu vực xung quanh I-4 thường được gọi là Hàng lang I-4.

Construction on I-4 began in 1958; the first segment opened in 1959, and the entire highway was completed in 1965.[3] The "I-4 Ultimate" project, currently in progress, will oversee the construction of variable-toll express lanes and numerous redevelopments through the 21 dặm (34 km) stretch of highway extending from Kirkman Road (exit 75) in Orlando to SR 434 (exit 94) in Longwood. The project broke ground in 2015, and is scheduled to be completed in 2021. Previously, the median of I-4 between Tampa and Orlando was the planned route of a now-cancelled high-speed rail line.[4] From a political standpoint, the "I-4 corridor" is a strategic region given the large number of undecided voters in a large swing state.[5]


Mô tả xa lộ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

I-4 chạy theo một con đường chéo xuyên hướng đông bắc - tây nam trong phần lớn chiều dài của nó, mặc dù nó được ghi biển dấu là đông-tây.

The 132 dặm-long (212 km) highway's western terminus is with an interchange with Interstate 275—known as "Malfunction Junction"—near downtown Tampa and is the starting point for mile markers and exit numbers (which are mileage-based). Just east of Malfunction Junction, I-4 passes along the north side of Tampa's Ybor City district, where a mile-long connector links to the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway (SR 618) and Port Tampa Bay. I-4 continues east past the Florida State Fairgrounds towards a turbine interchange (uncommon in the U.S.)[6] with Interstate 75.

Eastbound I-4 at US 27 the afternoon before the arrival of Hurricane Irma on the Gulf Coast; emergency shoulder use was in operation to improve traffic capacity

After passing near the eastern suburbs of Hillsborough County—including Brandon and Plant City—it enters Polk County, where I-4 crosses along the north side of Lakeland. The Polk Parkway (SR 570) forms a semi-loop through Lakeland's southern suburbs and returns to I-4 at the Florida Polytechnic University campus, near Polk City; it does not serve as a bypass route for I-4 traffic. Just after the western junction with the Polk Parkway, I-4 turns from an eastward to a northeastward heading. Between SR 33 (at exit 38) and US 27, I-4 passes through the fog-prone Green Swamp, although the landscape beside the highway is mostly forest as opposed to water-logged swampland. Ten variable-message signs and dozens of cameras & vehicle detection systems monitor this stretch of mostly-rural highway as a result of several large, deadly pile-ups caused by dense fog.[7][8]

I-4 westbound approaching SR 535 in Lake Buena Vista

At mile 57, I-4 enters Osceola County and soon thereafter intersects the Orlando area's beltways: the incomplete Western Expressway (SR 429) on the western side and the Central Florida GreeneWay (SR 417) which rounds the eastern side before returning to I-4 in Sanford. Additionally, an exit to World Drive (signed as just "Disney World") runs north as a limited-access highway into the Walt Disney World Resort and an electric pylon in the shape of Mickey Mouse can be seen on the southwest corner of the intersection. The single GreeneWay/World Drive exit (Exit 62) also marks an abrupt change from rural to suburban/urban landscape. The highway passes beside Celebration and Kissimmee on the east side and Walt Disney World Resort (not visible) on the west side.

For the next 40 mi (64 km), I-4 passes through the Orlando metropolitan area, where the highway forms the main north-south artery. It enters Orange County, passes through Walt Disney World, and by SeaWorld Orlando, & Universal Orlando—and intersects all of the area's major toll roads, including the Beachline Expressway (SR 528) and Florida's Turnpike. Orlando's main tourist stripInternational Drive—runs parallel and no more than 1.5 mi (2 km) from I-4 between Kissimmee and Florida's Turnpike. Between Michigan St. and Kaley Ave. (about mile 81), I-4 changes to a north heading past downtown Orlando and its northern suburbs. A 21 dặm (34 km) section of I-4 from west of Kirkman Road to east of SR 434 (miles 75-96) is currently undergoing a $2.3 billion reconstruction, expected to be completed in 2021, that replaces most bridges, changes the configuration of many intersections, and adds two express toll lanes—named 4 Express—in each direction (details in the I-4 Ultimate section).[9][10]

After passing along the west side of Downtown Orlando, I-4 continues through the city's northern suburbs—including Winter Park, Maitland, Altamonte Springs, and Sanford. Around mile 91, I-4 enters Seminole County and soon thereafter shifts to a northeast heading. The Seminole Expressway (SR 417), after passing around the east side of the Orlando metropolitan area, has its northern terminus (exit 101B) at I-4 in Sanford. This intersection will also connect with the Wekiva Parkway (SR 429), currently under construction, when it is completed in 2021, at which point a full beltway (SR 429 & SR 417; concurrent with I-4 for 2 mi) around the Orlando metro area will be available.

North of Sanford, I-4 is carried by the St. Johns River Veterans Memorial Bridge over the St. Johns River at the mouth of Lake Monroe. Along the bridge, I-4 enters Volusia County and passes Deltona & DeLand. The segment north of SR 44 is being widened from four to six lanes. Completed in winter 2016-17,[11] the entire length of I-4 will have at least 6 lanes (3+ per direction). I-4 terminates at a junction with I-95 in Daytona Beach. SR 400 continues east into Daytona Beach 4 mi to US 1.

Dịch vụ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Dọc theo Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 4 là hai cặp khu dừng chân/vệ sinh (mỗi chiều xe, 1 khu)- một cặp nằm trong Quận Polk, phía đông Polk City; và cặp khác nằm trong Quận Seminole, phía bắc Longwood. Cả hai cặp có nhà vệ sinh, máy bán hàng tự động, bàn ăn ngoài trời, khu dành cho chó đi bộ và an ninh đêm.[12][13][14]

FDOT closed a pair of rest areas at the Daryl Carter Parkway overpass (mile 70) near Lake Buena Vista in early 1999 and replaced them with retention ponds to serve runoff from an additional lane in each direction of I-4.[15] Another former rest area, without any bathrooms, existed on the eastbound side near milepost 127 in Volusia County.[16]

A pair of weigh stations including weigh in motion scales is present at mile 12 between Tampa and Plant City. They were opened in January 2009 to replace a pair just west of the SR 566 interchange at mile 19.[17]

Lịch sử[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The original plans called for I-4 to extend to St. Petersburg

I-4 was one of the first Interstate Highways to be constructed in Florida, with the first section opening between Plant City and Lakeland in 1959. By early 1960, the Howard Frankland Bridge was opened to traffic, as well as the segment from the Hillsborough Avenue/US 301 junction in Tampa to Plant City. The stretch from Lake Monroe to Lake Helen, including the original St. Johns River Bridge also opened during that period. The segment from Tampa to Orlando was complete by 1962.[18] By the mid 1960s, several segments were already complete, including Malfunction Junction in Tampa and parts of I-4 through Orlando. The original western terminus was set at Central Avenue (County Road 150) in St. Petersburg,[19] though a non-Interstate extension would have continued south and west to Pasadena.[cần dẫn nguồn] Proposed I-4 was later extended southwest to the present location of exit 20, with a planned temporary end at US 19 and 13th Avenue South,[20] and a continuation to the Sunshine Skyway was also designated as part of Interstate 4.[21] Construction was stalled at 9th Street North (CR 803) for several years.

I-4 eastbound at exit 111 in Volusia County

The entire Interstate Highway was completed by the late 1960s; however, the western terminus was truncated to Malfunction Junction in 1971 when I-75 was extended over the Frankland Bridge. Eventually, that stretch was again redesignated to become part of I-275.[22]

In maps and atlases dating to the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, the Tampa–St. Petersburg section of I-4/I-275 was marked as the Tampa Expressway. The Orlando segment was marked as the Orlando Expressway. Both names have since faded from maps.

Although many post-1970 interchanges along I-4 were constructed before the recent widening projects, they were designed with I-4 expansion in mind. In other words, there is enough room available to widen I-4 to up to ten lanes without extensively modifying the interchanges. Some of these interchanges include the I-75 stack (constructed in the 1980s) and several interchanges serving the Walt Disney World Resort (constructed in the late 1980s and early 1990s).

In 2002, I-4, along with most of Florida's interstates, switched over from a sequential exit numbering system to a mileage-based exit numbering system.[23]

A section of I-4 between Daytona Beach and Orlando called the "dead zone" is rumored to be haunted.[24] In 2010, the ECFRPC using GIS technology performed an analysis to determine if this identified zone had an increased fatality rate related to crashes. The analysis which compared this section of I-4 to several other dangerous I-4 sections found that while the dead zone area did not have the highest accident or fatality rate, it did identify that the percentage of fatality to accident was significantly higher in this location.

The median of I-4 between Tampa and Orlando was slated to be used for the Florida High Speed Rail line between those cities. As a result of a state constitutional amendment to build a high speed rail system between its 5 largest cities passed by voters in 2000, construction projects on I-4 included a wide median to accommodate a high speed rail line. The high speed rail project was cancelled in 2004, but revived again in 2009. In 2010, the federal government awarded Florida over $2 billion—nearly the entire projected construction cost—to build the line, with work on the project to begin in 2011 and be completed by 2014. However, Governor Rick Scott's rejection of the funding ended the project.[25]

On January 9, 2008, 70 vehicles were involved in a large pileup on I-4 near Polk City. The pileup was caused by an unexpected thick morning fog that was mixed with a scheduled—and approved—environmental burn by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The fog drifted across I-4, mixing with the smoke, reducing visibility to near-zero conditions. Four people were killed, and 38 were injured. The section of I-4 did not re-open until the next day, January 10.[26]

Khu vực Tampa[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

I-4 westbound 2 miles from the I-75 interchange

The I-4/I-275 interchange (Malfunction Junction) was rebuilt from 2002 to 2007,[27] and I-4 has been widened from four to six lanes (with eight lanes in certain segments). Eventually, I-4 will be widened again to a total of at least ten lanes (five in each direction). Studies for this project are already underway and construction should commence sometime in the 2010s. Completion of the project should be around 2020.[cần dẫn nguồn]

Eastbound I-4 shifted to its new, permanent alignment between Malfunction Junction and 50th Street on August 8, 2006. The new alignment includes a right-lane ramp exit/entry at the 22nd St/21st St Interchange (The previous left-lane configuration was causing hazardous conditions to commuters since its opening in 2005). On August 11, 2006, a fourth lane opened on eastbound I-4 between the downtown junction and 50th Street (led in by a newly opened third lane on the eastbound I-4 ramp from northbound I-275). And on August 18, the new westbound alignment, just west of 50th Street, opened. The newly opened lanes will improve flow throughout the interchange. The 50th Street overpass, however, would not be complete until late 2007.[28][29][30][31] Also, the eastbound I-4 exit ramp to Columbus Drive/50th Street is situated to the left-hand side of the highway (as opposed to its former right-hand side exit). This exit shift went into effect in spring 2006 and is part of the new, permanent interstate configuration.

In Tampa, the exit to 40th Street (SR 569), exit 2, was closed and demolished in late 2005 due to the ongoing reconstruction of I-4 and to accommodate a proposed connector highway with the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway.[32]

The interchange with what is today I-75 was constructed in the early 1980s.

Khu vực Orlando[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

As Orlando grew in the 1970s and 1980s, traffic became a growing concern, especially after the construction of the original interchange with the East–West Expressway in 1973, which proved to become a principal bottleneck. The term "highway hostages" was coined in the 1980s to describe people stuck in long commutes to and from Orlando on I-4.[cần dẫn nguồn]

I-4 in Altamonte Springs
I-4 East towards Downtown Orlando

In the early-to-mid 1990s, several interchanges near Kissimmee were constructed or upgraded to accommodate increasing traffic going to and from Walt Disney World. However, I-4's main lanes were not widened in the process. Around the same time, SR 417 was extended to I-4.[cần dẫn nguồn] Improvements to the US 192 junction were completed in 2007.[33]

The St. Johns River Veterans Memorial Bridge, a two-span, six-lane replacement to the original four-lane bridge over the St. Johns River northeast of Orlando, was completed in 2004.

During the early 2000s, tolled express lanes were being planned in the Orlando area as a traffic congestion relief technique for rush hour commuters. The name for them was to be Xpress 400, numbered after the state road designation for I-4. The express lanes were slated to extend from Universal Orlando, east to SR 434 in Longwood, and tolls were to be collected electronically via transponders like SunPass and Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority's E-Pass, with prices dependent on the congestion of the eight main lanes. However, the project was effectively banned by the passage of the SAFETEA-LU Federal transportation bill in 2005, introduced by U.S. Representative John Mica. The plan for tolled express lanes is now moving forward as part of the $2.3 billion I-4 Ultimate project (see "I-4 Ultimate" section below).

Interim improvements to the interchange at SR 408 were completed at the end of 2008.[34] The eastbound exit to Robinson Street (SR 526) permanently closed on April 25, 2006, to make way for construction of the new eastbound onramp from SR 408.[35] The westbound offramp to Gore Street was permanently closed in the same project on November 2, 2008.

The new overpass from I-4 west to John Young Parkway (County Road 423, CR 423) opened the morning of April 27, 2006.[36][37][38]

Tương lai[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

I-4 Ultimate[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Logo for future 4 Express lanes for Orlando and Tampa.

A $2.3 billion (in year-of-expenditure dollars) project—dubbed I-4 Ultimate—is reconstructing a 21 dặm (34 km) stretch of I-4 through Orlando from SR 435 (exit 75) east to SR 434 (exit 94).[39] The most noticeable change will be the addition of four variable-toll express lanes along this section, to be called 4 Express. The express lanes will be variably tolled in an attempt to maintain an average speed of 50 dặm Anh một giờ (80 km/h). Additionally, the general-use lanes will be rebuilt, 15 major interchanges will be reconfigured, 53 new bridges will be added, and 75 bridges will be replaced.[40] Two pedestrian bridges will be built over the highway near Kirkman Road and Maitland Boulevard.[41] The project will also reduce the curve radius and improve line-of-sight along the notorious Fairbanks Curve south of Fairbanks Avenue, which is the most accident-prone section of I-4.[42][43]

FDOT proposed adding barrier-separated HOV lanes to I-4 through the Orlando metro area in the 1990s, possibly funded by tolls,[44][45] but proposals for express lanes (including reversible toll lanes and HOT lanes) were blocked by politics for the next 15 years. In 2012, a legislative ban on tolls along I-4, which had been in place for seven years, ended and FDOT began soliciting private enterprises to build and help finance the project in a public-private partnership.[46] In February 2013, the state legislature and governor gave approval for FDOT to proceed with the public-private partnership on this section of I-4 in February 2013[47] and the following year, FDOT selected I-4 Mobility Partners to design, construct, finance, maintain and operate the project for 40 years. FDOT and I-4 Mobility Partners reached commercial and financial close and a public-private partnership concession agreement was executed in September 2014.[48] The final design phase began in October 2014.[49] On February 1, 2015, FDOT turned the project over to I-4 Mobility Partners[50] and on February 18, transportation officials and the governor held a groundbreaking ceremony for the project in Maitland.[51] I-4 Mobility Partners has a March 2021 deadline to complete the project.[51]

Thêm làn[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Extensions of the 4 Express toll lanes both southwest and northeast of the I-4 Ultimate project are being considered. In 2013, FDOT initiated a reevaluation study to reevaluate previous feasibility studies, made between 1998 and 2005, in which the addition of HOV or express toll lanes were considered.[52][53] The extensions cover approximately 40 dặm (64 km) of I-4 through the Orlando metro area. Southwest of the I-4 Ultimate, the study is examining an extension through Osceola County to US 27 in Polk County. Northeast of the I-4 Ultimate, the study is examining an extension through Seminole County to SR 472 in Volusia County. The reevaluation is expected to be complete in July 2015.[53]

Express toll lanes are also being considered for I-4 in the Tampa Bay area. In January 2015, FDOT unveiled its master plan for a system of express toll lanes—dubbed Tampa Bay Express (TBX)—on I-4, I-75, and I-275 and began public meetings for community input.[54] On I-4, these lanes would extend approximately 26 dặm (42 km) from I-275 to west of the Polk Parkway (SR 570). At the junction with I-275, the initial concept alignment calls for a direct connection between the express toll lanes of both highways.[55] Express bus lanes for regional, long distance bus service were studied for inclusion in the plan. The I-4 corridor was considered in the bus lane study,[56] but the resultant proposal only included installation on I-275 and I-75[57]

Những dự án khác[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Bản mẫu:Update section Connections with two new expressways are planned. The Wekiva Parkway—a 25 dặm (40 km) segment of SR 429—will connect to SR 417 at the I-4 interchange in Sanford. When completed in 2022, it will complete the beltway around Orlando, although the southern ends of SR 429 and SR 417 do not connect and are separated by a 3,4 dặm (5,5 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] drive along I-4.[58] The Central Polk Parkway is a planned tolled expressway in eastern Polk County that will connect I-4 near Davenport with the Polk Parkway near Bartow; it is currently in the design phase, but funding for right-of-way acquisition of the initial segments is not planned until fiscal year 2019/20.[59] Additionally, FDOT is conducting a feasibility study for a 5–11,5 dặm (8,0–18,5 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ][60] connection between I-4 and the Poinciana Parkway—a short, tolled expressway under construction between US 17/US 92 and the community of Poinciana.[61][62]

The final four-lane segment of I-4, from SR 44 to I-95, was widened to six lanes. Completed in winter 2016-17, the whole highway is at least six lanes wide.[63]

In 2014, the Florida Department of Transportation began a study of the feasibility of extending the SunRail commuter train line to Daytona Beach, primarily focusing on the use of the I-4 median. The ongoing widening project from SR 44 to I-95 maintains a median wide enough to accommodate a future rail line.[64]

Lối ra[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

CountyLocationmi[65][66]kmLối ra cũLối ra mớiGiao cắtGhi chú
HillsboroughTampa0,0000,000 I-275 (SR 93) – St. Petersburg, Ocala, Tampa International AirportWestbound splits into 3 ramps: Northbound & southbound I-275 and "Exit 45A" (in reference to the I-275 exit number)/"Downtown East-West", which joins the southbound I-275 Exit 45A ramp without joining the southbound I-275 mainline.
1,1541,8571122nd Street / 21st Street – Cruise Ships, Ybor City National Historic Landmark Districtformer SR 585
1,762,832
SR 618 (Selmon Expressway) / US 41 Bus. (20th Street) – Brandon, Port Tampa Bay
I-4–Selmon Expressway Connector (left exits, both directions); access to or from SR 618 only in the same direction; US 41 Bus. (trucks only, signed only as "Port Tampa Bay") access from westbound I-4 and to eastbound I-4
2,4633,96422 SR 569 (40th Street)Former interchange
3,2665,25633 US 41 (50th Street / SR 599) / Columbus DriveEastbound left exit and westbound left entrance; eastbound right entrance and westbound left entrance
4,7067,57445 SR 574 (Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard)
5,5738,96956Orient RoadEastbound exit and westbound entrance
6,68310,75567 US 92 (Hillsborough Avenue / SR 600) / US 301 (SR 41) – Riverview, Zephyrhills, Busch Gardens, Tampa Executive Airport, State FairgroundsAccess to/from US 92 east eastbound; Access to/from US 92 west westbound; Access to US 301 both directions
8,61013,85679 I-75 (SR 93A) – Ocala, Naples, Brandon, Temple TerraceI-75 exit 261
Mango10,14216,322810 CR 579 (Mango Road) – Mango, Thonotosassa
Dover13,87622,331914McIntosh Road – Dover
17,43428,0571017Branch Forbes Road – DoverServes Dinosaur World
Plant City19,51831,4111119 SR 566 (Thonotosassa Road)
21,28034,2471321 SR 39 (Alexander Street) / CR 39 (Buchman Highway)Alexander Street was originally exit 12, but was combined with 13
22,59636,3651422Park Road (SR 553)SR 553 not signed
HillsboroughPolk
county line
Lakeland25,56341,1401525County Line Road
Polk26,53042,69615A27 SR 570 east (Polk Parkway) – Lakeland, Winter Haven, Bartow
28,36545,6491628 To US 92 (SR 546/Memorial Boulevard) – LakelandSR 546 not signed
30,67549,3671731 SR 539 (CR 35A north/Kathleen Road) – Kathleen, Lakeland
32,00351,5041832 US 98 (SR 35 / SR 700) – Lakeland, Dade City
33,44053,8161933 SR 33 (Lakeland Hills Boulevard) / CR 582 (Socrum Loop Road) – LakelandEastbound exit/entrance with SR 33 only (signed "SR 33"); westbound exit/entrance with CR 582 only (signed "CR 582"/"To SR 33")
37,89460,9842038 SR 33
41,22366,34220A41 SR 570 west (Polk Parkway) – Auburndale, LakelandServes Florida Polytechnic University (southwest corner of interchange).
43,98170,7812144 SR 559 – Polk City, AuburndaleServes Fantasy of Flight
47,98277,2202248 CR 557 (Old Grade Road) – Lake Alfred, Winter Haven
Four Corners54,73388,0842355 US 27 (SR 25) – Haines City, ClermontServes Legoland
Osceola57,72392,8962458 CR 532 (Champions Gate Boulevard/Osceola-Polk Line Road) – Poinciana, Kissimmee
59,66396,01860 SR 429 north (Western Expressway) – Apopka
Celebration61,78199,42724C-D-E62 SR 417 north (Central Florida GreeneWay) – Disney World, Celebration, International Airport, SanfordCollector/distributor lanes serve two junctions with one exit. Full interchange with World Drive. Eastbound exit to SR 417. Westbound entrance from SR 417.
64,165103,26425A-B64 US 192 (SR 530/Irlo Bronson Memorial Highway) – Kissimmee, Magic Kingdom, Hollywood Studios
65,322105,12626C-D65Osceola Parkway (CR 522) – Animal Kingdom, Wide World of Sports
OrangeLake Buena Vista66,565107,12626A-B67 SR 536 east (Epcot Center Drive/World Center Drive) to SR 417 north – Epcot, Disney Springs
68,107109,6082768 SR 535 – Kissimmee, Lake Buena Vista
Williamsburg70,983114,23627A71Sea World (Central Florida Parkway)Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
71,744115,4612872 SR 528 east (Beachline Expressway) – International Airport, Cape Canaveral
Orlando73,732118,66029A74A SR 482 (Sand Lake Road) / International Drive
75,246121,09729B74BUniversal (Adventure Way)Westbound exit and entrance
75,246121,0973075 SR 435 (Kirkman Road) / International Drive – UniversalSigned as exits 75A (south) and 75B (north); serves Volcano Bay and Fun Spot America
76,359122,8883177 Florida's Turnpike (SR 91) – Miami, OcalaTurnpike exit 259
77,760125,14331A78Conroy RoadServes The Mall at Millenia, Holy Land Experience
79,147127,3753279 CR 423 (John Young Parkway)
80,474129,5103380 US 17 / US 92 / US 441 (Orange Blossom Trail / SR 500 / SR 600)Signed as exits 80A (south/west) and 80B (north/east) eastbound; previously signed as exits 33A and 33B accordingly; westbound is a left exit, signed as exit 80 and only providing south/west access
81,004130,36334 and 81A81 To US 17 north / US 92 east / US 441 north / Michigan StreetWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
81,469131,1123581BCKaley AvenueEastbound-only exchange, westbound exchange closed in 2015.
82,116132,1533682A SR 408 (East–West Expressway)
82,235132,3443782BGore StreetFormer westbound-only interchange; westbound entrance remains
82,636132,9903882BAnderson Street / South StreetSouth Street signed eastbound; Anderson Street signed westbound; To Amway Center, History Center; formerly signed as exit 82C
82,78133,223983South StreetClosed interchange; no eastbound exit
83,30134,064083A SR 526 (Robinson Street)Former interchange; eastbound exit and westbound entrance
83,792134,8504183A US 17 / US 92 / SR 50 (Colonial Drive / SR 600) / Amelia Street – Bob CarrSigned as exit 83A westbound; formerly signed as exit 83B eastbound
84,279135,6344284Ivanhoe BoulevardWestbound exit (signed as exit 84B westbound), eastbound entrance; eastbound exit closed in 2015
85,135137,0124385Princeton Street
85,890138,2274486Par StreetEastbound exit and westbound entrance
Winter Park86,789139,6734587Fairbanks Avenue (SR 426)Temporarily moved to miles back from original spot, merging with exit 86-Par Street
87,767141,2474688 SR 423 (Lee Road / US 17 Truck south / US 92 Truck west)Western end of US 17 Truck / US 92 Truck overlap; serves Eatonville
Maitland89,491144,0224790 SR 414 (Maitland Boulevard / US 17 Truck north / US 92 Truck east)Eastern end of US 17 Truck / US 92 Truck overlap; signed as exits 90A (east) and 90B (west)
SeminoleAltamonte Springs91,631147,4664892 SR 436 – Altamonte Springs, Apopka
Longwood93,613150,6564994 SR 434 – Longwood, Winter Springs
Lake Mary98,400158,3595098Lake Mary, Heathrow, Orlando Sanford International Airport (Lake Mary Boulevard)
100,628161,94551A101A CR 46A – Sanford, Heathrow
Sanford101,366163,133101B SR 417 south (Seminole Expressway) – International Airports (Sanford, Orlando), Sanford
102,505164,96651101C SR 46 – Mount Dora, Sanford Historic District
103,997167,36752104 US 17 / US 92 (SR 15 / SR 600) – Sanford
St. Johns River (Lake Monroe)St. Johns River Veterans Memorial Bridge
VolusiaDeltonaDeBary
city line
107,821173,52153108DeBary, Deltona (CR 4162)
DeltonaOrange City
city line
110,636178,05153C111Deltona, Orange City, DeBary (CR 4146)Signed as exits 111A (Deltona) and 111B (Orange City, DeBary); previously signed as exits 53CA and 53CB accordingly
DeltonaDeLand
city line
113,783183,11654114 SR 472 – Deltona, DeLand
Lake Helen115,898186,52055116DeLand, Lake Helen Historic District (CR 4116)
DeLand118,456190,63656118 SR 44 – New Smyrna Beach, DeLand Historic DistrictSigned as exits 118A (east) and 118B (west)
Daytona Beach129,131207,81657129 US 92 east (SR 600) – Daytona BeachEastbound exit and westbound entrance
131,987212,412132 I-95 (SR 9) – Daytona Beach, Jacksonville, MiamiI-95 exit 260B; signed as exits 132A (north) and 132B (south)
132,298212,91358, 132 SR 400 east – South Daytona
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Đường tiểu bang 400[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

State Road 400
LocationTampaDaytona Beach
Length136.514 mi[65][66] (219,698 km)

State Road 400 (SR 400) is an unsigned highway while running concurrently with I-4 from their shared western terminus at I-275 in Tampa through the eastern terminus of I-4 at I-95 in Daytona Beach. SR 400 is named Belville Road beyond that point and continues for another bốn dặm (6,4 km) to its own eastern terminus at an intersection with US 1 on the city line between Daytona Beach and South Daytona. Sections of the non-concurrent SR 400 are classified as a "scenic thoroughfare" within Daytona Beach.[67]

Các nút giao
The entire route is in Volusia County.

Locationmi[66]kmGiao cắtGhi chú
Daytona Beach0,0000,000 I-4 west – Orlando
I-95 – Jacksonville
Eastern end of I-4 overlap, exit 132 westbound; I-95 exit 260A
0,2710,436 CR 4009 (Williamson Boulevard) – International Airport
2,1813,510 SR 483 north / CR 483 south (Clyde Morris Boulevard) – Embry Riddle University, Daytona State College, University of Central Florida
Daytona BeachSouth Daytona
city line
2,8524,590 SR 5A (South Nova Road) – Museum, Bethune Cookman University
4,2166,785 US 1 (South Ridgewood Avenue) – Daytona Beach, South Daytona, Convention Center
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Trong chính trị[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Kết quả bầu cử tổng thống Hoa Kỳ ở các quận Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 4 qua
Year Democrat Republican Other
2016 50.6% 1,289,387 44.7% 1,161,468 3.68% 95,768
2012 52.6% 953,186 46.2% 838,377 1.2% 21,907
2008 53.3% 946,929 45.7% 811,159 1.0% 17,034
2004 46.5% 724,618 52.9% 824,887 0.6% 9,929
2000 48.0% 569,746 49.7% 590,030 2.2% 26,531
1996 45.7% 462,403 44.7% 451,902 9.6% 96,818
1992 37.5% 379,821 42.1% 426,297 20.3% 205,621

In the 2004 U.S. presidential election, the I-4 corridor, a commonly used term to refer to the counties in which Interstate 4 runs through and a site of significant population growth, was a focus of political activity within the swing state of Florida. Communities along the I-4 corridor were perceived by both major political parties as having higher proportions of undecided voters as compared to more Republican- or Democratic-leaning portions of the state. It played an equally key role in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, but whereas the corridor had voted heavily for George W. Bush in 2004, which helped Bush win the state, in 2008 it swung behind Democratic candidate Barack Obama, helping Obama win Florida.[68]

The I-4 corridor previously voted for the statewide winner from 1996 to 2012. However, in the 2016 election, Republican Donald Trump carried the state, and won the presidency without winning the region. The Republicans carried the region three times while the Democrats carried the region four times in the past seven presidential elections. Republicans George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush won more votes than other candidates in 1992, 2000, and 2004, while Democrats Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, and Hillary Clinton captured the region's vote total in the elections of 1996, 2008, 2012, and 2016.

Xem thêm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ “Route Log and Finder List: Table 1”. Federal Highway Administration. Ngày 31 tháng 10 năm 2002. Truy cập ngày 7 tháng 6 năm 2007. 
  2. ^ [http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/statistics/gis/default.htm FDOT GIS data[liên kết hỏng]
  3. ^ “Overview: I-4 Ultimate”. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 5 năm 2017. 
  4. ^ Williams, Timothy (16 tháng 2 năm 2011). “Florida’s Governor Rejects High-Speed Rail Line, Fearing Cost to Taxpayers”. The New York Times. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 5 năm 2017. 
  5. ^ Smith, Adam (4 tháng 11 năm 2016). “Florida's I-4 corridor: Where presidents get picked”. Tampa Bay Times. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 5 năm 2017. 
  6. ^ Boniface, Russell (1 tháng 11 năm 2001). “Interchange”. CE Magazine. American Society of Civil Engineers. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. The turbine design, which is rare in the United States, is a first of its kind in North Carolina; another notable example exists at the interchange of I-4 and I-75 in Tampa, Florida. 
  7. ^ Maready, Jim (9 tháng 1 năm 2009). “One Year After Tragic I-4 Pileup, Questions Remain”. Lakeland Ledger. tr. 2. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. The Florida Department of Transportation is in the process of installing 10 electronic signs...The system will also include a series of 22 cameras, which can be rotated, and 77 vehicle-detection systems, which will observe the amount of traffic and speed of the vehicles. 
  8. ^ Chambliss, John (14 tháng 1 năm 2008). “Fog Has Caused Deaths Before”. Ocala Star Banner. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. 
  9. ^ “FAQs”. I-4 Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. 
  10. ^ “I-4 Express PD&E Study”. i4express.com. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. 
  11. ^ “408464-1 I-4 Widening from SR 44 to East of I-95”. Central Florida Roads. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 8 năm 2014. 
  12. ^ Staff (2013). “Florida's Rest Area, Service Plaza, Truck Comfort Station (WIM), and Welcome Center Locations”. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 6 tháng 2 năm 2013. Truy cập ngày 3 tháng 2 năm 2013.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  13. ^ Google Maps – Map of Polk County Rest Area vicinity (Bản đồ). Google, Inc thiết kế bản đồ. Google, Inc. Truy cập ngày 3 tháng 2 năm 2013. 
  14. ^ Google Maps – Map of Seminole County Rest Area vicinity (Bản đồ). Google, Inc thiết kế bản đồ. Google, Inc. Truy cập ngày 3 tháng 2 năm 2013. 
  15. ^ Stratton, Jim (10 tháng 9 năm 2001). “Nowhere To Rest, But More Room To Drive”. Orlando Sentinel. Truy cập ngày 9 tháng 3 năm 2014. 
  16. ^ Florida Official Transportation Map, 1989 Lưu trữ April 2, 2015, tại Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Nicholson, Dave (2 tháng 1 năm 2009). New High-Tech Weigh Stations Open Monday On I-4. Plant City Courier. 
  18. ^ “Highways to Your Vacationland”. All Florida and TV Week Magazine. The Evening Independent (Jacksonville, FL). 3 tháng 6 năm 1962. 
  19. ^ “Time Now to Plan for Interstate 4”. Editorials. The Evening Independent (Jacksonville, FL). 14 tháng 7 năm 1965. tr. 10A. Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 3 năm 2014. 
  20. ^ Yogman, Ron (22 tháng 11 năm 1967). “City Buzzes at Interstate Impact on 1,600 Parcels”. The Evening Independent (Jacksonville, FL). tr. 2A. Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 3 năm 2014;  Subsequent articles:
  21. ^ “State Agents Lay Out I-4's Tour to the South”. St. Petersburg Times. 19 tháng 7 năm 1968. tr. 1B. Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 3 năm 2014. 
  22. ^ “Changing Tampa: Then and Now”. Modern Cities. 2 tháng 10 năm 2016. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 5 năm 2017. 
  23. ^ Staff. “Florida's Interstate Exit Numbers- I-4”. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 13 tháng 11 năm 2010. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 11 năm 2010.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  24. ^ “Ghostly Images Seen, Photographed on 'Deadly' Stretch of I-4”. Orlando: WKMG-TV. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 14 tháng 9 năm 2008. 
  25. ^ “UPDATE 1-Florida governor rejects US high-speed rail funds”. Reuters. 16 tháng 2 năm 2011. 
  26. ^ “Interstate 4 Deadly Collisions”. 10 tháng 1 năm 2008. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 13 tháng 12 năm 2014. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 4 năm 2018. 
  27. ^ Staff. “Construction Projects: I-4/I-275 Interchange (operational improvements, completed December 2006)”. Tampa Bay Interstates. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 27 tháng 9 năm 2011. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 11 năm 2011.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  28. ^ Staff (8 tháng 8 năm 2006). “Eastbound I-4 in new alignment”. Tampa Bay Interstates. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 27 tháng 9 năm 2007. 
  29. ^ “Eastbound I-4 Traffic: New Lanes, New Exit through Ybor City”. St. Petersburg, FL: WTSP-TV. 7 tháng 8 năm 2006. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 9 tháng 2 năm 2013. 
  30. ^ “New I-4 Lanes Help Drivers Get to Concert Early”. St. Petersburg, FL: WTSP-TV. 10 tháng 8 năm 2006. [liên kết hỏng]
  31. ^ Staff (8 tháng 8 năm 2006). “New Eastbound I-4 Lane Open!”. Tampa Bay Interstates (Thông cáo báo chí). Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 26 tháng 9 năm 2007. 
  32. ^ Staff. “I-4/Crosstown Connector Project Page”. Tampa Bay Interstates. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 14 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
  33. ^ Staff. “US 192 Interchange_Project Overview”. Trans4mation. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 11 năm 2011. 
  34. ^ Staff. “I-4 Trans4mation (FSTR 408 Interchange Project)”. Trans4mation. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 11 năm 2011. 
  35. ^ “On the Move”. Orlando, FL: Central Florida News 13. 25 tháng 4 năm 2006. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 24 tháng 5 năm 2006. 
  36. ^ “Rising above I-4 Crowds”. Orlando Sentinel. 26 tháng 4 năm 2006. [liên kết hỏng]
  37. ^ “Changes Under Way on I-4”. Daytona Beach, FL: WESH-TV. 26 tháng 4 năm 2006. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 6 tháng 2 năm 2012.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  38. ^ “On the Move”. Orlando, FL: Central Florida News 13. 26 tháng 4 năm 2006. [liên kết hỏng]
  39. ^ Staff. “Future I-4 Improvements”. Moving-4-Ward. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2013. 
  40. ^ “FAQs”. I-4 Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 22 tháng 1 năm 2015. 
  41. ^ “Special Features”. I-4 Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  42. ^ “Fairbanks Ave. / Winter Park”. I-4 Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  43. ^ “I-4 Ultimate Project to Address Dangerous Fairbanks Curve”. Orlando: WFTV-TV. 18 tháng 2 năm 2015. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  44. ^ Roy, Roger (23 tháng 8 năm 1993). “Express Lanes Lead Alternatives to Avoid I-4 Jams”. Orlando Sentinel. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  45. ^ Roger, Roy (18 tháng 8 năm 1995). “I-4 Plan: Promote Car Pools, Light Rail”. Orlando Sentinel. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  46. ^ Tracy, Dan (8 tháng 7 năm 2012). “State Seeks Investors to Help Foot Bill to Build I-4 Toll Lanes”. Orlando Sentinel. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  47. ^ Orben, Bill (4 tháng 2 năm 2013). “FDOT Gets Backing on $2.1B I-4 Project”. Orlando Business Journal. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  48. ^ “FDOT and I-4 Mobility Partners Reach Commercial and Financial Close for I-4 Ultimate Project” (PDF). I-4 Ultimate (Thông cáo báo chí). Florida Department of Transportation. 9 tháng 9 năm 2014. Truy cập ngày 22 tháng 1 năm 2015. 
  49. ^ Fluker, Anjali (3 tháng 11 năm 2014). “FDOT Shares New I-4 Ultimate Design, Construction Milestones”. Orlando Business Journal. Truy cập ngày 22 tháng 1 năm 2015. 
  50. ^ Vargas, Lena (2 tháng 2 năm 2015). “I-4 Ultimate Project Underway in Orange, Seminole Counties”. Orlando: Central Florida News 13. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  51. ^ a ă Tracy, Dan. “I-4 Ultimate Overhaul Gets Ceremonial Start”. Orlando Sentinel. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  52. ^ “Original Documents”. Interstate 4 Beyond the Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  53. ^ a ă “Frequently Asked Questions”. Interstate 4 Beyond the Ultimate. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  54. ^ Carson, Kris (16 tháng 1 năm 2015). “FDOT Media Advisory” (PDF). Tampa Bay Express (Thông cáo báo chí). Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  55. ^ Master Plan Project: I-275 from South of SR 60 to North of MLK Boulevard (3) (PDF) (Bản đồ). Florida Department of Transportation. Tháng 1 năm 2015. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015 – qua Tampa Bay Express. 
  56. ^ “Express Bus in the Tampa Bay Express Lanes (Draft)”. Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 28 tháng 9 năm 2014. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  57. ^ “Express Bus in Tampa Bay Express Lanes” (PDF). Tampa Bay Express. Florida Department of Transportation. Tháng 1 năm 2015. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. . FDOT said that the project will be completed in the near future.
  58. ^ “Frequently Asked Questions”. Wekiva Parkway. Florida Department of Transportation/Central Florida Expressway. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  59. ^ “Central Polk Parkway”. Central Polk Parkway. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  60. ^ “Draft Summary of Potential Environmental Impacts: Preliminary Corridors” (PDF). I-4 Poinciana Parkway Connector. Florida Department of Transportation. Tháng 12 năm 2013. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  61. ^ “About the Study”. I-4 Poinciana Parkway Connector. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  62. ^ Project Study Area (PDF) (Bản đồ). Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 2015 – qua I-4 Poinciana Parkway Connector. 
  63. ^ “408464-1 I-4 widening from SR 44 to East of I-95”. Central Florida Roads. Florida Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2015. 
  64. ^ Harper, Mark (17 tháng 4 năm 2014). “Volusia Supports $2.5M Study of SunRail to Daytona”. Daytona Beach News Journal. Truy cập ngày 20 tháng 8 năm 2014. 
  65. ^ a ă Florida Department of Transportation (4 tháng 8 năm 2010). “Florida Department of Transportation Interchange Report” (PDF). Florida Department of Transportation. tr. 2–3. Bản gốc (PDF) lưu trữ ngày 8 tháng 2 năm 2012. Truy cập ngày 2 tháng 11 năm 2010.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  66. ^ a ă â Florida Department of Transportation. “Straight Line Diagrams”. Florida Department of Transportation. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 6 tháng 3 năm 2014. Truy cập ngày 8 tháng 3 năm 2014.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |df= (trợ giúp)
  67. ^ “Scenic Thoroughfare Classification”. Land Development Code. Daytona Beach, Florida. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 11 năm 2011 – qua Municode. (cần đăng ký mua (trợ giúp)). 
  68. ^ “Candidates Eye Voters on Florida's I-4”. CNN. 11 tháng 10 năm 2004. 

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]