Joseph Priestley

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Quarter-length portrait of a man in a black coat against a purple and blue curtain backdrop.
Bức họa vẽ Priestley của Ellen Sharples (1794)[1]

Joseph Priestley (13 tháng 3, 1733 – 6 tháng tháng 2, 1804) là một nhà thần học ở thế kỷ 18 của Anh. Ông cũng là nhà triết học tự nhiên, nhà giáo dục, và lý thuyết chính trị với hơn 150 công trình được xuất bản. Các nhà khoa học cũng thường coi ông là người đầu tiên phát hiện ra oxy, khi ông đã phân tách được trạng thái khí của nó, mặc dù các nhà hóa học Carl Wilhelm ScheeleAntoine Lavoisier cũng từng tuyên bố họ đã phát hiện ra nguyên tố này trước.[2]

Chú thích[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ McLachlan (1983), 28–30.
  2. ^ Kuhn, 53–60; Schofield (2004), 112–13. The difficulty in precisely defining the time and place of the "discovery" of oxygen, within the context of the developing chemical revolution, is one of Thomas Kuhn's central illustrations of the gradual nature of paradigm shifts in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tài liệu cơ bản[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Lindsay, Jack, ed. Autobiography of Joseph Priestley. Teaneck: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1970. ISBN 0838678310.
  • Miller, Peter N., ed. Priestley: Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0521425611.
  • Passmore, John A., ed. Priestley's Writings on Philosophy, Science and Politics. New York: Collier Books, 1964.
  • Rutt, John T., ed. Collected Theological and Miscellaneous Works of Joseph Priestley. 2 vols. London: George Smallfield, 1832.
  • Rutt, John T., ed. Life and Correspondence of Joseph Priestley. 2 vols. London: George Smallfield, 1831.
  • Schofield, Robert E., ed. A Scientific Autobiography of Joseph Priestley (1733–1804): Selected Scientific Correspondence. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966.

Tư liệu[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The most exhaustive biography of Priestley is Robert Schofield's recent two-volume work; several one-volume treatments exist, all somewhat older: Gibbs, Holt and Thorpe. Graham and Smith focus on Priestley's life in America and Uglow and Jackson both discuss Priestley's life in the context of other developments in science.

  • Gibbs, F. W. Joseph Priestley: Adventurer in Science and Champion of Truth. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1965.
  • Graham, Jenny. Revolutionary in Exile: The Emigration of Joseph Priestley to America, 1794–1804. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 85 (1995). ISBN 0871698528.
  • Holt, Anne. A Life of Joseph Priestley. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.
  • Jackson, Joe. A World on Fire: A Heretic, an Aristocrat and the Race to Discover Oxygen. New York: Viking, 2005. ISBN 0670034347.
  • Johnson, Steven. The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America. New York: Riverhead, 2008. ISBN 1594488525.
  • Schofield, Robert E. The Enlightenment of Joseph Priestley: A Study of his Life and Work from 1733 to 1773. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. ISBN 0271016620.
  • Schofield, Robert E. The Enlightened Joseph Priestley: A Study of His Life and Work from 1773 to 1804. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. ISBN 0271024593.
  • Smith, Edgar F. Priestley in America, 1794–1804. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co., 1920.
  • Tapper, Alan. "Joseph Priestley". Dictionary of Literary Biography 252: British Philosophers 1500–1799. Eds. Philip B. Dematteis and Peter S. Fosl. Detroit: Gale Group, 2002.
  • Thorpe, T. E. Joseph Priestley. London: J. M. Dent, 1906.
  • Uglow, Jenny. The Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. ISBN 0374194408.

Tài liệu khác[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Anderson, R. G. W. and Christopher Lawrence. Science, Medicine and Dissent: Joseph Priestley (1733–1804). London: Wellcome Trust, 1987. ISBN 0901805289.
  • Bowers, J. D. Joseph Priestley and English Unitarianism in America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007. ISBN 027102951X.
  • Braithwaite, Helen. Romanticism, Publishing and Dissent: Joseph Johnson and the Cause of Liberty. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0-333-98394-7.
  • Conant, J. B., ed. "The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory: The Chemical Revolution of 1775–1789". Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.
  • Crook, R. E. A Bibliography of Joseph Priestley. London: Library Association, 1966.
  • Crossland, Maurice. "The Image of Science as a Threat: Burke versus Priestley and the 'Philosophic Revolution'". British Journal for the History of Science 20 (1987): 277–307.
  • Donovan, Arthur. Antoine Lavoisier: Science, Administration and Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 052156218X
  • Eshet, Dan. "Rereading Priestley". History of Science 39.2 (2001): 127–59.
  • Fitzpatrick, Martin. "Joseph Priestley and the Cause of Universal Toleration". The Price-Priestley Newsletter 1 (1977): 3–30.
  • Garrett, Clarke. "Joseph Priestley, the Millennium, and the French Revolution". Journal of the History of Ideas 34.1 (1973): 51–66.
  • Fruton, Joseph S. Methods and Styles in the Development of Chemistry. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002. ISBN 0871692457.
  • Kramnick, Isaac. "Eighteenth-Century Science and Radical Social Theory: The Case of Joseph Priestley's Scientific Liberalism". Journal of British Studies 25 (1986): 1–30.
  • Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 0226458083.
  • Haakonssen, Knud, ed. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0521560608.
  • McCann, H. Chemistry Transformed: The Paradigmatic Shift from Phlogiston to Oxygen. Norwood: Alex Publishing, 1978. ISBN 089391004X.
  • McEvoy, John G. "Joseph Priestley, 'Aerial Philosopher': Metaphysics and Methodology in Priestley's Chemical Thought, from 1762 to 1781". Ambix 25 (1978): 1–55, 93–116, 153–75; 26 (1979): 16–30.
  • McEvoy, John G. "Enlightenment and Dissent in Science: Joseph Priestley and the Limits of Theoretical Reasoning". Enlightenment and Dissent 2 (1983): 47–68.
  • McEvoy, John G. "Priestley Responds to Lavoisier's Nomenclature: Language, Liberty, and Chemistry in the English Enlightenment". Lavoisier in European Context: Negotiating a New Language for Chemistry. Eds. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent and Ferdinando Abbri. Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1995. ISBN 088135189X.
  • McEvoy, John G. and J.E. McGuire. "God and Nature: Priestley's Way of Rational Dissent". Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 6 (1975): 325–404.
  • McLachlan, John. Joseph Priestley Man of Science 1733–1804: An Iconography of a Great Yorkshireman. Braunton and Devon: Merlin Books, 1983. ISBN 0863030521.
  • McLachlan, John. "Joseph Priestley and the Study of History". Transactions of the Unitarian Historical Society 19 (1987–90): 252–63.
  • Philip, Mark. "Rational Religion and Political Radicalism". Enlightenment and Dissent 4 (1985): 35–46.
  • Rose, R. B. "The Priestley Riots of 1791". Past and Present 18 (1960): 68–88.
  • Rosenberg, Daniel. Joseph Priestley and the Graphic Invention of Modern Time. Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture 36(1) (2007): pp. 55–103.
  • Rutherford, Donald. Leibniz and the Rational Order of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0521461553.
  • Schaffer, Simon. "Priestley Questions: An Historiographic Survey". History of Science 22.2 (1984): 151–83.
  • Sheps, Arthur. "Joseph Priestley's Time Charts: The Use and Teaching of History by Rational Dissent in late Eighteenth-Century England". Lumen 18 (1999): 135–54.
  • Watts, R. "Joseph Priestley and Education". Enlightenment and Dissent 2 (1983): 83–100.

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Short online biographies

Bản mẫu:Copley Medallists 1751-1800