Sát thủ Zodiac
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Phác họa sát thủ Zodiac
|Thông tin chung|
|Nguyên nhân chết:||Chưa nhận diện|
|5 người chết, 2 người bị thương (y tuyên bố đã giết 37 người)|
|December 20, 1968 (possibly June 4, 1966), (letters 1969)–October 11, 1969 (possibly 1972), (letters 1974)|
|Quốc gia:||Hoa Kỳ|
|Bang:||California và Nevada|
|Ngày bắt giữ:||N/A|
Sát thủ Zodiac là tên giết người hàng loạt khét tiếng sống ở Bắc California vào cuối năm 1960 và đầu những năm 1970. Danh tính của y vẫn chưa được nhận diện. Sát thủ Zodiac nổi lên khi sát hại nạn nhân ở hồ Berryessa, Benicia thuộc bang Vallejo, và San Francisco trong khoảng từ tháng Mười Hai năm 1968 đến tháng 10 năm 1969. Bốn người đàn ông và ba phụ nữ khác trong độ tuổi từ 16 đến 29 cũng là nạn nhân của y. Cái tên Zodiac của y được biết đến khi y gửi những lá thư không rõ nguồn gốc đến thời báo Bay Area để xác nhận mình đã giết những nạn nhân này. Những lá thư y gửi chứa đựng 4 mật mã đánh đố nhà báo và bên dưới mỗi lá thư đều có ký tên Zodiac. Cho đến giờ, chỉ một trong số bốn đoạn mã được các nhà chức trách phơi bày ra ánh sáng.
- 1 Nạn nhân
- 2 Timeline
- 2.1 Lake Herman Road attack
- 2.2 Blue Rock Springs attack
- 2.3 Letters from the Zodiac
- 2.4 Lake Berryessa attack
- 2.5 Presidio Heights attack
- 2.6 Communication from the Zodiac
- 2.7 Modesto attack
- 2.8 Further Zodiac communications
- 2.9 Zodiac letter to Paul Avery
- 2.10 Riverside attack
- 2.11 Lake Tahoe disappearance
- 2.12 Santa Barbara attack
- 2.13 Final Zodiac letter
- 2.14 Later letters of suspicious authorship
- 3 Suspects
- 4 Current status of investigations
- 5 Văn hóa đại chúng
- 6 Xem thêm
- 7 Tham khảo
- 8 Đọc thêm
- 9 Liên kết ngoài
Nạn nhân[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Nạn nhân đã xác nhận[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Mặc dù sát thủ Zodiac tuyên bố mình đã giết 37 người trong các lá thư gửi báo chí nhưng các nhân viên điều tra cho rằng chỉ có bảy nạn nhân chắc chắn là mục tiêu của y. Trong số các nạn nhân này, có hai người sống sót. Những nạn nhân đã chết gồm:
- David Arthur Faraday (17 tuổi), và Betty Lou Jensen (16 tuổi): bị bắn chết ngày 20 tháng 12 năm 1968, ở hồ Herman Road, nội ô thành phố Benicia. tọa độ:
- Michael Renault Mageau (19 tuổi), và Darlene Elizabeth Ferrin (22 tuổi): bị tấn công ngày 04 tháng 7 năm 1969, trong bãi đậu xe Blue Rock Springs Park ở Vallejo. Mageau may mắn sống sót sau cuộc tấn công, còn Ferrin đã chết khi vừa đến bệnh viện Kaiser Foundation. tọa độ:
- Bryan Calvin Hartnell (20 tuổi) và Cecelia Ann Shepard (22 tuổi): bị đâm vào ngày 27 tháng 9 năm 1969, tại hồ Berryessa ở hạt Napa. Hartnell sống sót sau 8 vết đâm sau lưng, còn Shepard đã chết do vết thương quá nặng tại bệnh viện ngày 29 tháng Chín năm 1969 Tọa độ.:
- Paul Lee Stine, (29 tuổi): bị bắn chết ngày 11 tháng 10 năm 1969, tại khu phố Presidio Heights ở San Francisco sau khi cho tên sát thủ Zodiac lên tãxi của mình. Tọa độ:
Nạn nhân trong diện điều tra[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Các nạn nhân sau đây được cho là mục tiêu của Zodiac, mặc dù chưa được xác nhận:
- Robert Domingos, 18, and Linda Edwards, 17: bị bắn chết ngày 4 tháng Sáu năm 1963, trên một bãi biển gần Gaviota. Edwards và Domingos được xác định là nạn nhân Zodiac do lần tấn công này và lần tấn công của Zodiac tại Hồ Berryessa sáu năm sau đó có điểm tương đồng. Tọa độ:
- Cheri Jo Bates, 18: bị đâm chết trong tình trạng gần như đầu lìa khỏi cổ ngày 30 tháng 10 năm 1966 tại Riverside City College ở Riverside. Vụ giết người này có điểm tương đồng với vụ sát thủ Zodiac giết người bốn năm sau đó theo điều tra của nhà báo Paul Avery, thời báo San Francisco Chronicle. Ông cho rằng có điểm tương đồng ở hiện trường hai vụ án. Tọa độ trường Riverside:
- Donna Lass, 25: mất tích vào ngày 6 tháng 9 năm 1970 ở Stateline, Nevada. Một tấm bưu thiếp với quảng cáo chung cư cao tầng từ Forest Pines (gần Incline Village, Lake Tahoe) dán ở mặt sau được gửi tới tòa soạn Chronicle ngày 22 tháng 3 năm 1971, và sau đó sát thủ Zodiac tuyên bố mình là thủ phạm đã giết chết Láss. Tuy nhiên, đến nay vẫn chưa có bằng chứng cho thấy có sự liên quan trong vụ mất tích này với những vụ giết người của Zodiac.
Ngoài ra còn có một nạn nhân đặc biệt của sát thủ Zodiac:
- Kathleen Johns, 22:Ngày 22 tháng 3 năm 1970, trên đường cao tốc 132 gần I-580, phía tây Modesto. Johns đã phải đánh lừa người đàn ông đã cho cô và đứa con gái bé bỏng của cô đi nhờ xe để trốn thoát tại giữa Stockton và Patterson khi đã đi nhờ khoảng gần 1½ giờ đồng hồ. Tọa độ:
Timeline[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Lake Herman Road attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
The first murders widely attributed to the Zodiac Killer were the shootings of high school students Betty Lou Jensen and David Faraday on December 20, 1968, on Lake Herman Road, just inside Benicia city limits. The couple were on their first date and planned to attend a Christmas concert at Hogan High School about three blocks from Jensen's home. The couple instead visited a friend before stopping at a local restaurant and then driving out on Lake Herman Road. At about 10:15 p.m., Faraday parked his mother's Rambler in a gravel turnout, which was a well-known lovers' lane. Shortly after 11:00 p.m., their bodies were found by Stella Borges, who lived nearby. The Solano County Sheriff's Department investigated the crime but no leads developed.
Utilizing available forensic data, Robert Graysmith postulated that another car pulled into the turnout, just prior to 11:00 pm and parked beside the couple. The killer apparently exited the second car and walked toward the Rambler, possibly ordering the couple out of the Rambler. Jensen appeared to have exited the car first, yet when Faraday was halfway out, the killer apparently shot Faraday in the head. Fleeing from the killer, Jensen was gunned down twenty-eight feet from the car with five shots through her back. The killer then drove off.
Blue Rock Springs attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Just before midnight on July 4, 1969, Darlene Ferrin and Michael Mageau drove into the Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo, four miles from the Lake Herman Road murder site, and parked. While the couple sat in Ferrin's car, a second car drove into the lot and parked alongside them but almost immediately drove away. Returning about 10 minutes later, this second car parked behind them. The driver of the second car then exited the vehicle, approaching the passenger side door of Ferrin's car, carrying a flashlight and a 9 mm Luger. The killer directed the flashlight into Mageau's and Ferrin's eyes before shooting at them, firing five times. Both victims were hit, and several bullets had passed through Mageau and into Ferrin. The killer walked away from the car but upon hearing Mageau's moaning, returned and shot each victim twice more before driving off.
On July 5, 1969, at 12:40 a.m., a man phoned the Vallejo Police Department to report and claim responsibility for the attack. The caller also took credit for the murders of Jensen and Faraday six-and-a-half months earlier. The police traced the call to a phone booth at a gas station at Springs Road and Tuolumne, about three-tenths of a mile from Ferrin's home and only a few blocks from the Vallejo Police Department.
Ferrin was pronounced dead at the hospital. Mageau survived the attack despite being shot in the face, neck and chest.
Letters from the Zodiac[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On August 1, 1969, three letters prepared by the killer were received at the Vallejo Times Herald, the San Francisco Chronicle, and The San Francisco Examiner. The nearly identical letters took credit for the shootings at Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs. Each letter also included one-third of a 408-symbol cryptogram which the killer claimed contained his identity. The killer demanded they be printed on each paper's front page or he would "cruse [sic] around all weekend killing lone people in the night then move on to kill again, until I end up with a dozen people over the weekend."
The Chronicle published its third of the cryptogram on page four of the next day's edition. An article printed alongside the code quoted Vallejo Police Chief Jack E. Stiltz as saying "We're not satisfied that the letter was written by the murderer" and requested the writer send a second letter with more facts to prove his identity. The threatened murders did not happen, and all three parts were eventually published.
On August 7, 1969, another letter was received at The San Francisco Examiner with the salutation "Dear Editor This is the Zodiac speaking." This was the first time the killer had used this name for identification. The letter was a response to Chief Stiltz's request for more details that would prove he had killed Faraday, Jensen and Ferrin. In it, the Zodiac included details about the murders which had not yet been released to the public, as well as a message to the police that when they cracked his code "they will have me."
On August 8, 1969, Donald and Bettye Harden of Salinas, California, cracked the 408-symbol cryptogram. It contained a misspelled message in which the killer claimed to be collecting slaves for the afterlife. No name appears in the decoded text, and the killer said that he would not give away his identity because it would slow down or stop his slave collection.
Lake Berryessa attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On September 27, 1969, Pacific Union College students Bryan Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard were picnicking at Lake Berryessa on a small island connected by a sand spit to Twin Oak Ridge. A man approached them wearing a black executioner's-type hood with clip-on sunglasses over the eye-holes and a bib-like device on his chest that had a white 3"x3" cross-circle symbol on it. He approached them with a gun, which Hartnell believed to be a .45. The hooded man claimed to be an escaped convict from Deer Lodge, Montana, where he had killed a guard and stolen a car, explaining that he needed their car and money to go to Mexico. He had brought precut lengths of plastic clothesline and told Shepard to tie up Hartnell, before he tied her up. The killer checked, and tightened Hartnell's bonds after discovering Shepard had bound Hartnell's hands loosely. Hartnell initially believed it to be a weird robbery, but the man drew a knife and stabbed them both repeatedly. The killer then hiked 500 yards back up to Knoxville Road, drew the cross-circle symbol on Hartnell's car door with a black felt-tip pen, and wrote beneath it: "Vallejo/12-20-68/7-4-69/Sept 27–69–6:30/by knife."
At 7:40 p.m., the killer called the Napa County Sheriff's office from a pay telephone to report this latest crime. The phone was found, still off the hook, minutes later at the Napa Car Wash on Main Street in Napa by KVON radio reporter Pat Stanley, only a few blocks from the sheriff's office, yet 27 miles from the crime scene. Detectives were able to lift a still-wet palm print from the telephone but were never able to match it to any suspect.
After hearing their screams for help, a man and his son who were fishing in a nearby cove discovered the victims and summoned help by contacting park rangers. Napa County Sheriff's deputies Dave Collins and Ray Land were the first law enforcement officers to arrive at the crime scene. Cecelia Shepard was conscious when Collins arrived, providing him with a detailed description of the attacker. Hartnell and Shepard were taken to Queen of the Valley Hospital in Napa by ambulance. Shepard lapsed into a coma during transport to the hospital and never regained consciousness. She died two days later, but Hartnell survived to recount his tale to the press. Napa County Sheriff Detective Ken Narlow, who was assigned to the case from the outset, worked on solving the crime until his retirement from the department in 1987.
Presidio Heights attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Two weeks later on October 11, 1969, a passenger entered the cab driven by Paul Stine at the intersection of Mason and Geary Streets (one block west from Union Square) in San Francisco requesting to be taken to Washington and Maple Streets in Presidio Heights. For reasons unknown, Stine drove one block past Maple to Cherry Street; the passenger then shot Stine once in the head with a 9mm, took Stine's wallet and car keys, and tore away a section of Stine's bloodstained shirt tail. This passenger was observed by three teenagers across the street at 9:55 p.m., who called the police while the crime was in progress. They observed a man wiping the cab down before walking away towards the Presidio, one block to the north.
Two blocks from the crime scene, Officer Don Fouke, responding to the call, observed a white man walking along the sidewalk and stepping onto a stairway leading up to the front yard of one of the homes on the north side of the street; the encounter lasted only five to ten seconds. The radio dispatcher had alerted to be on the lookout for a black suspect, so they drove past him without stopping; the mix-up in descriptions remains unexplained to this day. A search ensued, but no possible suspects were found. The three teen witnesses worked with a police artist to prepare a composite sketch of Stine's killer; then, a few days later, this police artist returned, working with the witnesses to prepare a second composite sketch of the killer.
Communication from the Zodiac[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On October 14, 1969, the Chronicle received another letter from the Zodiac, this time containing a swatch of Paul Stine's shirt tail as proof he was the killer; it also included a threat about killing schoolchildren on a school bus. To do this, Zodiac wrote, "just shoot out the front tire & then pick off the kiddies as they come bouncing out." At 2:00 p.m. on October 20, 1969, someone claiming to be the Zodiac called Oakland PD demanding that one of two prominent lawyers, F. Lee Bailey or Melvin Belli, appear on the local television show A.M. San Francisco, hosted by Jim Dunbar. Bailey was not available, but Belli did appear on the show. Dunbar appealed to the viewers to keep the lines open, and eventually, someone claiming to be the Zodiac called several times and said his name was "Sam". Belli agreed to meet with him in Daly City, but the suspect never showed up.
On November 8, 1969, the Zodiac mailed a card with another cryptogram consisting of 340 characters. The 340-character cipher has never been decoded. Numerous possible solutions have been suggested, but none can be claimed as definitive.
On November 9, 1969, the Zodiac mailed a seven-page letter claiming that two policemen stopped and actually spoke with him three minutes after he shot Stine. Excerpts from the letter were published in the Chronicle on November 12 including the Zodiac's claim; that same day, Officer Don Fouke wrote a memo explaining what had happened the night of Stine's murder. On December 20, 1969, exactly one year after the murders of David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen, the Zodiac mailed a letter to Belli that included another swatch of Stine's shirt; the Zodiac claimed he wanted Belli to help him. [cần dẫn nguồn]
Modesto attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On the night of March 22, 1970, Kathleen Johns was driving from San Bernardino to Petaluma to visit her mother. She was seven months pregnant and had her 10-month-old daughter beside her. While heading west on Highway 132 near Modesto, a car behind her began honking its horn and flashing its headlights. She pulled off the road and stopped. The man in the car parked behind her, approached her car, stated that he observed that her right rear wheel was wobbling, and offered to tighten the lug nuts. After finishing his work, the man drove off; yet when Johns pulled forward to re-enter the highway the wheel almost immediately came off the car. The man returned, offering to drive her to the nearest gas station for help. She and her daughter climbed into his car.
During the ride the car passed several service stations but the man did not stop. For about 90 minutes he drove back and forth around the backroads near Tracy. When Johns asked why he was not stopping, he would change the subject. When the driver finally stopped at an intersection, Johns jumped out with her daughter and hid in a field. The driver searched for her using his flashlight telling her that he would not hurt her, before eventually giving up. Unable to find her, he got back into the car and drove off. Johns hitched a ride to the police station in Patterson.
When Johns gave her statement to the sergeant on duty, she noticed the police composite sketch of Paul Stine's killer and recognized him as the man who abducted her and her child. Fearing he might come back and kill them all, the sergeant had Johns wait, in the dark, at the nearby Mil's Restaurant. When her car was found, it had been gutted and torched.
Most accounts claim he threatened to kill her and her daughter while driving them around, but at least one police report disputes that. Johns' account to Paul Avery of the Chronicle indicates her abductor left his car and searched for her in the dark with a flashlight; however, in one report she made to the police, she stated he did not leave the vehicle.
Further Zodiac communications[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Zodiac continued to communicate with authorities for the remainder of 1970 via letters and greeting cards to the press. In a letter postmarked April 20, 1970, the Zodiac wrote, "My name is _____," followed by a 13-character cipher. The Zodiac went on to state that he was not responsible for the recent bombing of a police station in San Francisco (referring to the February 18, 1970, death of Sgt. Brian McDonnell two days after the bombing at Park Station in Golden Gate Park) but added "there is more glory to killing a cop than a cid [sic] because a cop can shoot back." The letter included a diagram of a bomb the Zodiac claimed he would use to blow up a school bus. At the bottom of the diagram, he wrote: " = 10, SFPD = 0."
Zodiac sent a greeting card postmarked April 28, 1970, to the Chronicle. Written on the card was, "I hope you enjoy yourselves when I have my BLAST," followed by the Zodiac's cross circle signature. On the back of the card, the Zodiac threatened to use the bus bomb soon unless the newspaper published the full details he wrote. He also wanted to start seeing people wearing "some nice Zodiac butons [sic]."
In a letter postmarked June 26, 1970, the Zodiac stated he was upset that he did not see people wearing Zodiac buttons. He wrote, "I shot a man sitting in a parked car with a.38." The Zodiac was possibly referring to the murder of Sgt. Richard Radetich, a week earlier, on June 19. At 5:25 am, Radetich was writing a parking ticket in his squad car when an assailant shot him in the head with a.38-caliber pistol. Radetich died 15 hours later. SFPD denies the Zodiac was involved in this murder; it remains unsolved.
Included with the letter was a Phillips 66 roadmap of the San Francisco Bay Area. On the image of Mount Diablo, the Zodiac had drawn a crossed-circle similar to the ones he had included in previous correspondence. At the top of the crossed circle, he placed a zero, and then a three, six, and a nine. The accompanying instructions stated that the zero was "to be set to Mag. N." The letter also included a 32-letter cipher that the killer claimed would, in conjunction with the code, lead to the location of a bomb he had buried and set to go off in the fall. The cipher was never decoded, and the alleged bomb was never located. The killer signed the note with " = 12, SFPD = 0."
In a letter to the Chronicle postmarked July 24, 1970, the Zodiac took credit for Kathleen Johns' abduction, four months after the incident. In a July 26, 1970 letter, the Zodiac paraphrased a song from The Mikado, adding his own lyrics about making a "little list" of the ways he planned to torture his "slaves" in "paradice." The letter was signed with a large, exaggerated cross circle symbol and a new score: " = 13, SFPD = 0." A final note at the bottom of the letter stated, "P.S. The Mt. Diablo code concerns Radians + # inches along the radians." In 1981, a close examination of the radian hint by Zodiac researcher Gareth Penn led to the discovery that a radian angle, when placed over the map per Zodiac's instructions, pointed to the locations of two Zodiac attacks.
On October 5, 1970, the Chronicle received a three-by-five inch card signed by the Zodiac with the drawn with blood. The card's message was formed by pasting words and letters from an edition of the Chronicle, and thirteen holes were punched across the card. Inspectors Armstrong and Toschi agreed it was "highly probable" the card came from the Zodiac.
Zodiac letter to Paul Avery[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On October 27, 1970, Chronicle reporter Paul Avery (who had been covering the Zodiac case) received a Halloween card signed with a letter 'Z' and the Zodiac's cross circle symbol. Handwritten on the card was the note "Peek-a-boo, you are doomed." The threat was taken seriously and received a front-page story on the Chronicle. Soon after receiving this letter, Avery received an anonymous letter alerting him to the similarities between the Zodiac's activities and the unsolved murder of Cheri Jo Bates, which had occurred four years earlier at the city college in Riverside in the Greater Los Angeles Area, more than 400 miles south of San Francisco. He reported his findings in the Chronicle on November 16, 1970.
Riverside attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On October 30, 1966, 18-year-old Cheri Jo Bates, a student of Riverside Community College, spent the evening at the campus library annex until it closed at 9:00 p.m. Neighbors reported hearing a scream around 10:30 p.m. Bates was found dead the next morning, a short distance from the library, between two abandoned houses slated to be demolished for campus renovations. The wires in her Volkswagen's distributor cap had been pulled out. She was brutally beaten and stabbed to death. A man's Timex watch with a torn wristband was found nearby. The watch had stopped at 12:24, but police believe the attack occurred much earlier.
A month later, on November 29, 1966, nearly identical typewritten letters were mailed to the Riverside police and the Riverside Press-Enterprise, titled "The Confession". The author claimed responsibility for the Bates murder, providing details of the crime that were not released to the public. The author warned that Bates "is not the first and she will not be the last." In December 1966, a poem was discovered carved into the bottom side of a desktop in the Riverside City College library. Titled "Sick of living/unwilling to die", the poem's language and handwriting resembled that of the Zodiac's letters. It was signed with what were assumed to be the initials rh. During the 1970 investigation, Sherwood Morrill, California's top "Questioned Documents" examiner, expressed his opinion that the poem was written by the Zodiac.
On April 30, 1967, exactly six months after the Bates murder, Bates' father Joseph, the Press-Enterprise, and the Riverside police all received nearly identical letters: in a handwritten scrawl the Press-Enterprise and police copies read "Bates had to die there will be more", with a small scribble at the bottom that resembled the letter Z. Joseph Bates' copy read "She had to die there will be more", this time without the Z signature.[cần dẫn nguồn]
On March 13, 1971, five months after Avery's article linking the Zodiac to the Riverside murder, the Zodiac mailed a letter to the Los Angeles Times. In the letter he credited the police, instead of Avery, for discovering his "Riverside activity, but they are only finding the easy ones, there are a hell of a lot more down there."
The connection between Cheri Jo Bates, Riverside and the Zodiac remains uncertain. Paul Avery and the Riverside Police Department maintain that the Bates homicide was not committed by the Zodiac, but did concede some of the Bates letters may have been his work to claim credit falsely.
Lake Tahoe disappearance[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
On March 22, 1971, a postcard to the Chronicle, addressed to "Paul Averly" and believed to be from the Zodiac, appeared to take credit for the disappearance of Donna Lass on September 6, 1970. Made from a collage of advertisements and magazine lettering, it featured a scene from an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums and the text "Sierra Club", "Sought Victim 12", "peek through the pines", "pass Lake Tahoe areas", and "around in the snow". Zodiac's cross circle symbol was in the place of the usual return address.[cần dẫn nguồn]
Lass was a nurse at the Sahara Tahoe hotel and casino. She worked until about 2:00 a.m. on September 6, 1970, treating her last patient at 1:40 a.m. Later that same day, both Lass's employer and her landlord received phone calls from an unknown male falsely claiming Lass had left town due to a family emergency. Lass was never found. What appeared to be a grave site was discovered near the Clair Tappaan Lodge in Norden, California, on Sierra Club property, but an excavation yielded only a pair of sunglasses.[cần dẫn nguồn] No evidence has been uncovered to connect the Lass disappearance with the Zodiac Killer definitively.
Santa Barbara attack[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
In a Vallejo Times-Herald story appearing on November 13, 1972, Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office Bill Baker (ret.)[cần dẫn nguồn] postulated that the murders of a young couple in northern Santa Barbara County might have been the work of the Zodiac Killer. On June 4, 1963, high school senior Robert Domingos and fiancée Linda Edwards were shot dead on a beach near Lompoc, having skipped school that day for "Senior Ditch Day". Police believed that the assailant attempted to bind the victims, but when they freed themselves and attempted to flee, the killer shot them repeatedly in the back and chest with a.22-caliber weapon. The killer then placed their bodies in a small shack and tried, unsuccessfully, to burn it down.[cần dẫn nguồn]
Final Zodiac letter[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
After the "Pines" card, the Zodiac remained silent for nearly three years. The Chronicle then received a letter from the Zodiac, postmarked January 29, 1974, praising The Exorcist as "the best saterical comidy [sic]" that he had ever seen." The letter included a snippet of verse from The Mikado and an unusual symbol at the bottom that has remained unexplained by researchers. Zodiac concluded the letter with a new score, "Me = 37, SFPD = 0".
[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Of further communications sent by the public to members of the news media, some contained similar characteristics of previous Zodiac writings. The Chronicle received a letter postmarked February 14, 1974, informing the editor that the initials for the Symbionese Liberation Army spelled out an Old Norse word meaning "kill". However, the handwriting was not authenticated as the Zodiac's.
A letter to the Chronicle, postmarked May 8, 1974, featured a complaint that the movie Badlands was "murder-glorification" and asked the paper to cut its advertisements. Signed only "A citizen", the handwriting, tone, and surface irony were all similar to earlier Zodiac communications.[cần dẫn nguồn] The Chronicle subsequently received an anonymous letter postmarked July 8, 1974, complaining about one of its columnists, Marco Spinelli. The letter was signed "the Red Phantom (red with rage)". The Zodiac's authorship of this letter is debated.[cần dẫn nguồn]
A letter, dated April 24, 1978, was initially deemed authentic, but was declared a hoax less than three months later by three experts. Dave Toschi, the SFPD homicide detective who had worked the case since the Stine murder, was thought to have forged the letter, because author Armistead Maupin believed the letter to be similar to "fan mail" he received in 1976 which he believed was authored by Toschi. While he admitted to writing the fan mail, Toschi denied forging the Zodiac letter and was eventually cleared of any charges. The authenticity of this letter remains unverified.
On March 3, 2007, an American Greetings Christmas card sent to the Chronicle, postmarked 1990 in Eureka had recently been discovered in their photo files by editorial assistant Daniel King. Inside the envelope, with the card, was a photocopy of two U.S. Postal keys on a magnet keychain. The handwriting on the envelope resembles Zodiac's print, but was declared inauthentic by forensic document examiner Lloyd Cunningham. However, not all Zodiac experts agree with Cunningham's analysis.[][liên kết hỏng] There is no return address on the envelope nor is his crossed-circle signature to be found. The card itself is unmarked. The Chronicle turned over all the material to the Vallejo Police Department for further analysis.
Suspects[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
A number of suspects have been named. Robert Graysmith's book Zodiac advanced Arthur Leigh Allen as a suspect based on circumstantial evidence. A letter sent to the Riverside Police Department from Bates' killer was typed with a Royal typewriter with an elite type, the same brand found during a February 1991 search of Allen's residence. He owned and wore a Zodiac brand wristwatch. Allen lived in Vallejo and worked minutes away from where one of the first victims (Ferrin) lived and where one of the killings took place.
In 2002, SFPD developed a partial DNA profile from the saliva on stamps and envelopes of Zodiac's letters. SFPD compared this partial DNA to the DNA of Arthur Leigh Allen. A DNA comparison was also made with the DNA of Don Cheney, who was Allen's former close friend and the first person to suggest Allen may be the Zodiac Killer. Since neither test result indicated a match, Allen and Cheney were excluded as the contributors of the DNA, though it cannot be stated definitively that it is DNA from the Zodiac on the envelopes.
Current status of investigations[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
In 2007, a man named Dennis Kaufman claimed that his stepfather Jack Tarrance was the Zodiac. Kaufman turned several items over to the FBI including a hood similar to the one worn by the Zodiac. According to news sources, DNA analysis conducted by the FBI on the items were deemed inconclusive in 2010. Kaufman's claims have later been widely discredited. He claimed to have incriminating rolls of film taken by his stepfather. The photos allegedly showed victims of the crimes. Kaufman later published some of these photos on his own web page. The photos were very small, had low resolution, and were so blurry that nothing could be positively identified. An associate of Kaufman's, Nanette Barto, who received her Forensic Document Examining certificate from an unaccredited school, claimed to have matched Jack Tarrance's handwriting to that of the Zodiac Killer. However, in 2010, the FBI's Head Document Examiner at Quantico deemed the handwriting "Inconclusive".[cần dẫn nguồn]
In 2009, Deborah Perez claimed that her father, Guy Ward Hendrickson, was the Zodiac. However, Perez alleged previously that she was the illegitimate daughter of John F. Kennedy, so her claim that her father was the Zodiac has been viewed as unlikely.
In 2009, a lawyer named Robert Tarbox (who, in August 1975, was disbarred by the California Supreme Court for failure to pay some clients) said that in 1972 a merchant mariner walked into his office and confessed to him that he was the Zodiac Killer. The seemingly lucid seaman (whose name Tarbox would not reveal due to confidentiality) described his crimes briefly but persuasively enough to convince Tarbox. The man claimed he was trying to stop himself from his "opportunistic" murder spree but never returned to see Tarbox again. Tarbox took out a full-page ad in the Vallejo Times-Herald in which he cleared the name of Arthur Leigh Allen as a killer, his only reason for revealing the story thirty years after the fact. Robert Graysmith, the author of several books on Zodiac, said Tarbox's story was "entirely plausible." Retired police handwriting expert Lloyd Cunningham, who worked the Zodiac case for decades, added "they gave me banana boxes full of Allen's writing, and none of his writing even came close to the Zodiac. Nor did DNA extracted from the envelopes (on the Zodiac letters) come close to Arthur Leigh Allen."
In 2009, an episode of the History Channel television series MysteryQuest looked at newspaper editor Richard Gaikowski (1936–2004). During the time of the murders, Gaikowski worked for Good Times, a San Francisco counterculture newspaper. His appearance resembles the composite sketch, and Nancy Slover, the Vallejo police dispatcher who was contacted by the Zodiac shortly after the Blue Rock Springs Attack, has identified a recording of Gaikowski's voice as being the same as the Zodiac's. Additional circumstantial evidence exists but cannot definitively connect Gaikowski to the murders.[cần dẫn nguồn]
The case is open in Napa County and also in the city of Riverside.[cần dẫn nguồn]
Retired police detective Steve Hodel argues in his book The Black Dahlia Avenger that his father, George Hill Hodel, Jr., was the Black Dahlia killer whose victims include Elizabeth Short. The book caused the release of previously suppressed files and wire recordings by the Los Angeles district attorney's office of his father which showed that he was a prime suspect in Short's murder. The L.A. district Attorney subsequently wrote a letter which is published in the revised edition stating that if he were still alive he would be prosecuted for the crimes.[cần dẫn nguồn] In a follow up book, Hodel argued a circumstantial case that his father was also the Zodiac Killer based upon a police sketch, the similarity of the style of the Zodiac letters to the Black Dahlia Avenger letters and questioned document examination.
On February 19, 2011, America's Most Wanted featured a story about the Zodiac Killer. A picture has recently surfaced of known Zodiac victim Darlene Ferrin and a man who closely resembles the composite sketch, formed based on eyewitness' descriptions, of the Zodiac Killer. Police believe the photo was taken in San Francisco in the summer of 1966 or 1967. Police hope someone can identify the man in the photo. It has been suspected that the man in the photo is Darlene Ferrin's ex-husband, James Phillips. This has not been confirmed.[cần dẫn nguồn]
Former California Highway Patrol officer Lyndon Lafferty argues that the Zodiac killer is a 91-year-old Solano County, California man whom he calls "George Russell Tucker." Using a group of retired law enforcement officers called the Mandamus Seven, Lafferty discovered "Tucker" and a cover-up for why he was not pursued. The man died in February 2012 and is not considered a suspect by law enforcement agencies.
In February, 2014, it was reported that a man named Louie Myers had confessed to a friend that he was the Zodiac Killer in 2001, after learning that he was dying from cirrhosis of the liver. He requested that his friend, Randy Kenney go to the police upon his death. He died in 2002, though Kenney allegedly had difficulties getting officers to cooperate and take the claims seriously. There are several potential connections between Myers and the Zodiac case. Myers attended the same High Schools as victims David Farraday and Betty Lou Jensen. Myers also allegedly worked in the same restaurant as victim Darlene Ferrin. Myers also had access to the same sort-of military boot whose print was found at the Lake Berryessa crime scene. Futhermore, during the period between 1971-1973 when no Zodiac letters were sent, Myers was stationed overseas with the military. Kenney claims that Myers confessed he targeted couples due to a bad breakup with a girlfriend. While officers associated with the case are skeptical, they believe the story is credible enough to investigate.
Văn hóa đại chúng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
The Zodiac Killer's crimes, letters, and cryptograms to police and newspapers inspired many movies, novels, television productions, as well as other serial killers.
Xem thêm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- ^ a ă Graysmith, p. 160.
- ^ a ă Adams, p. 274
- ^ a ă â b “Police report”. Zodiackiller.com. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Dec. 20, 1968 – Lake Herman Road”. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 6 năm 2008.
- ^ Graysmith, Robert (1976). Zodiac. Berkley. tr. 4–7. ISBN 0-425-09808-7.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 26–28.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 32–33.
- ^ Graysmith, p. 29.
- ^ a ă Graysmith, pp. 54–55.
- ^ Graysmith, p. 49.
- ^ "Coded Clues in Murders". San Francisco Chronicle, August 2, 1969. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 55–57.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 62–77
- ^ “Message written on Hartnell's car door”. Zodiackiller.com. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ Stanley, Pat (18 tháng 2 năm 2007). “Zodiac on the line ...”. Napa Valley Register. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ Dorgan, Marsha (18 tháng 2 năm 2007). “Online exclusive: In the wake, of the Zodiac”. Napa Valley Register. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ Carson, L. Pierce (18 tháng 2 năm 2007). “Zodiac victim: 'I refused to die'”. Napa Valley Register. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ “Girl Dies of Stabbing at Berryessa”. San Francisco Chronicle. 30 tháng 9 năm 1969. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ Dorgan, Marsha (18 tháng 2 năm 2007). “Tracking the mark of the Zodiac for decades”. Napa Valley Register. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ “Definite Zodiac Victim Paul Stine”. Zodiackiller.com. Truy cập ngày 2 tháng 1 năm 2010.
- ^ Rodelli, Mike (2005). “4th Interview with Don Fouke – Thoughts on the Zodiac Killer”. Mike Rodelli.
- ^ “Zodiac Killer: Meet The Prime Suspects”. America's Most Wanted. 2 tháng 9 năm 2008.
- ^ McCarthy, Chris. “Alphabet of the 340 Character Zodiac Cypher”. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 6 tháng 2 năm 2008.
- ^ "I've Killed Seven" The Zodiac Claims. San Francisco Chronicle,m November 12, 1969.
- ^ New Letters From Zodiac – Boast of More Killings. San Francisco Chronicle, November 12, 1969.
- ^ Smith, Dave (16 tháng 11 năm 1970). “Evidence Links Zodiac Killer to '66 Death of Riverside Coed”. Los Angeles Times.
- ^ a ă Montaldo, Charles. “The Zodiac Killer Continued – The Zodiac Letters”. About.com.
- ^ Adams, p. 268.
- ^ Graysmith, p. 139.
- ^ a ă "My Name Is" letter. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- ^ a ă Zamorra, Jim Herron. 1967–71 – a bloody period for S.F. police. San Francisco Chronicle; January 27, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- ^ “Dragon card letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 28 tháng 4 năm 1970. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Button letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 26 tháng 6 năm 1970. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Zodiac map letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 26 tháng 6 năm 1970. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Zodiac Johns letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 24 tháng 7 năm 1970. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Zodiac Mikado letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 26 tháng 7 năm 1970. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ “Zodiac Mikado letter, cont”. Zodiackiller.com. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ Gilbert and Sullivan Clue to Zodiac. San Francisco Chronicle, October 12, 1970.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 161–162.
- ^ a ă Graysmith, pp. 165–166.
- ^ Photo of watch found near Bates' body.. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 168–169.
- ^ Graysmith, pp. 170–172.
- ^ Wark, Jake M. "Paul Avery and the Riverside Connection". AOL. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006.
- ^ Zimmerman, Janet. New movie 'Zodiac' includes Redlands resident's attack Riverside Press-Enterprise, March 1, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- ^ Graysmith, p. 178.
- ^ “Zodiac Exorcist letter”. Zodiackiller.com. 29 tháng 1 năm 1974. Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010.
- ^ Tips Still Pursue Multiple Slayer. San Francisco Chronicle, August 26, 1976.
- ^ Williams, Lance. "Zodiac's written clues fascinate document expert", San Francisco Chronicle, March 3, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- ^ Freedman, Rich. Zodiac: Did killer send card in 1990?; The Vallejo Times Herald, March 3, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- ^ a ă “Zodiac Killer: Meet The Prime Suspects”. America's Most Wanted. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 1 năm 2009.
- ^ Gafni, Matthias (22 tháng 2 năm 2007). “Zodiac revisited: Vallejo police send three letters for DNA testing”. Vallejo Times Herald. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 25 tháng 2 năm 2007. Truy cập ngày 1 tháng 3 năm 2007.
- ^ “CNN Interview With Kelly Carroll”. CNN. 27 tháng 10 năm 2002. Truy cập ngày 1 tháng 3 năm 2007.
- ^ Weiss, Mike; DNA seems to clear only Zodiac suspect; San Francisco Chronicle; October 12, 2002. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
- ^ Goodyear, Charlie. Files shut on Zodiac's deadly trail; San Francisco Chronicle; April 7, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- ^ “Zodiac: The killer who will not die”.
- ^ “Zodiac Killer: Meet The Prime Suspects”. Amw.com. Truy cập ngày 9 tháng 8 năm 2011.
- ^ Pickel, Kris (10 tháng 2 năm 2010), FBI: Test Results Back For Zodiac Killer Suspect, CBS Sacramento, truy cập ngày 31 tháng 5 năm 2010 [][liên kết hỏng]
- ^ The Associated Press (30 tháng 4 năm 2009). “Ca. woman Deborah Perez says Zodiac killer was her father; police to investigate claim (New York Daily News)”. Daily News (New York). Truy cập ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2010. [][liên kết hỏng]
- ^ Zodiac Killer's Daughter, Deborah Perez, Also JFK's Daughter. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ http://members.calbar.ca.gov/fal/Member/Detail/25339
- ^ http://blogs.sfweekly.com/thesnitch/2009/07/how_many_disbarred_lawyers_doe.php
- ^ Williams, Lance (19 tháng 7 năm 2009), “Another possible Zodiac suspect put forth”, San Francisco Chronicle
- ^ “This is the Zodiac speaking: Will the Zodiac murder cases ever be solved? (Martinez News-Gazette)”, Martinez News-Gazette (Martinez,CA), 6 tháng 5 năm 2010, truy cập ngày 10 tháng 8 năm 2011 [][liên kết hỏng] Retrieved August 10, 2011.
- ^ Hodel, Steve (2006). Black Dahlia Avenger: The True Story. Harper Paperbacks. ISBN 0-06-113961-0.
- ^ Hodel, Steve (2009). Most Evil: Avenger, Zodiac, and the Further Serial Murders of Dr. George Hill Hodel. Dutton Adult. ISBN 0-525-95132-6.
- ^ America's Most Wanted, Fugitive Cases: Zodiac Killer, Television airing February 19, 2011. Link to hi-res photograph
- ^ Lafferty, Lyndon E. (2005). The Zodiac Killer cover-up: AKA the silenced badge. Vallejo, Calif.: Mandamus Pub. ISBN 9780982936306. OCLC 794978951.
- ^ “Ex-gumshoe’s Zodiac book fingers Solano County man”. The San Francisco Chronicle. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 7 năm 2012.
- ^ Fagan, Kevin; Bulwa, Demian (18 tháng 5 năm 2012), “Retired CHP gumshoe's Zodiac suspect is dead (San Francisco Chronicle)”, San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco,CA), truy cập ngày 21 tháng 5 năm 2012
- ^ http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/iteam&id=9441384
Primary sources[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
|Wikisource tiếng Việt có toàn văn tác phẩm về:|
- FBI Case File (1 of 5) on the Zodiac Killer. 89 pages.
- FBI Case File (2 of 5) on the Zodiac Killer. 109 pages.
- FBI Case File (3 of 5) on the Zodiac Killer. 258 pages.
- FBI Case File (4 of 5) on the Zodiac Killer. 208 pages.
- FBI Case File (5 of 5) on the Zodiac Killer. 373 pages.
Đọc thêm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- Charles F. Adams (1 tháng 10 năm 2004), Murder by the Bay: historic homicide in and about the city of San Francisco, Quill Driver Books, ISBN 978-1-884995-46-0
- Brenda Haugen (1 tháng 8 năm 2010), The Zodiac Killer: Terror and Mystery, Capstone Press, ISBN 978-0-7565-4357-0
- Robert Graysmith (2 tháng 1 năm 2007), Zodiac, Berkley Books, ISBN 978-0-425-21218-9
- Michael D. Kelleher; David Van Nuys (2002), "This is the Zodiac speaking": into the mind of a serial killer, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-275-97338-4
- Gareth Penn (1987), Times 17: the amazing story of the Zodiac murders in California and Massachusetts, 1966–1981, Foxglove Press
- William T. Rasmussen (tháng 8 năm 2006), Corroborating Evidence II, Sunstone Press, ISBN 978-0-86534-536-2
Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
|Wikimedia Commons có thêm thể loại hình ảnh và phương tiện truyền tải về Zodiac Killer|
- "Zodiac Murder Map" – Google Map plotting definite and possible Zodiac attacks (with details).