^Size, mass and luminosity estimates of the VV Cephei system are all considerably uncertain due to insufficient knowledge: Professor Kaler writes "in truth we really do not know". Its distance cannot be measured from parallax, instead it is derived from its assumed membership in the Cepheus OB2 association, but this is also not certain. Other methods give a range of sizes between 1000 and 2200 that of the Sun, but these too are confounded by the fact that the star is not spherical, which leads to overestimates. (J. Kaler)
^approximately 800, derived from the 1990 lunar occultation measurement of apparent diameter of 43.1 milliarcsec (up to +/- 1 milliarcsec error) (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990A&A...230..355R page 361) together with 1997 parallax of 5.40 [1.68] milliarcsec (SIMBAD citing Hipparcos). The parallax gives a derived distance from 460 to 877 light years. This in turn yields an actual diameter from 653 to 1246 solar radius. An average of 800 is used here.
^ abcNugent, Richard. “The Garnet Star”. weblore.com. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 12 năm 2009. “DIAM.. m Cep 1224... V509 CAS 910... V382 CAR 747”
^“Garnet Star”. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 12 năm 2009. “at 0.021 seconds of arc, giving it a radius 1650 times... Mu Cep's distance... give a luminosity 353,000 times that of the Sun and a radius of 1450 Suns”
^A NEW VLA-HIPPARCOS DISTANCE TO BETELGEUSE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. Graham M. Harper et al 2008 The Astronomical Journal 135 1430-1440 doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1430 
^Jim Kaler. 2009-06-26. Betelgeuse "0.047 seconds of arc, from which we find a true radius of between 4.1 (compromise distance) and 4.6 (larger distance) AU,... extended atmosphere, and the pulsations make it difficult to locate an actual "surface" to tell just how large the star actually is.... "size" of the star depends on the color of observation. Long-wave infrared... up to 5 AU and greater,... shorter-wave infrared... 3 AU.... Betelgeuse to be shrinking... not even round, but somewhat oval"