Experimental (nhạc)

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Experimental, hay âm nhạc thể nghiệm, là thể loại âm nhạc phổ biến từ giữa thế kỷ 20, nở rộ đặc biệt tại Bắc Mỹ khi nói tới những thể loại âm nhạc chưa từng biết tới. Một trong những nghệ sĩ nổi tiếng nhất và có ảnh hưởng nhất có lẽ là John Cage[1]. Theo nghĩa hẹp hơn, experimental được dành để miêu tả thể loại âm nhạc vượt qua mọi biên giới và định nghĩa, hay là tiền đề cho một thể loại hoàn toàn khác biệt, hoặc kiểu pha trộn không chính thống, mới, phân biệt với việc sử dụng những chất liệu đặc trưng[2]. Tương tự, nó cũng dùng để miêu tả âm nhạc không tôn giáo, hay là thứ âm nhạc hỗn tạp. Định nghĩa rõ ràng hơn chỉ đến vào cuối những năm 1950 với sự xuất hiện của các sáng tác sử dụng máy móc, và đôi khi experimental bị cho là gần với nhạc điện tử hay musique concrète. Khái niệm này cũng thường được các nhà báo sử dụng nhằm miêu tả một thể loại âm nhạc mới không nhất quán với hình mẫu cơ bản.

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Grant 2003, p. 174
  2. ^ Anon. [n.d.]a

Thư mục[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

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  • Parkin, Chris. 2008. "Micachu: Interview". Time Out London (February 26).
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Xem thêm
  • Ballantine, Christopher. 1977. "Towards an Aesthetic of Experimental Music". The Musical Quarterly 63, no. 2 (April): 224–46.
  • Benitez, Joaquim M. 1978. "Avant-Garde or Experimental? Classifying Contemporary Music". International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 9, no. 1 (June): 53–77.
  • Broyles, Michael. 2004. Mavericks and Other Traditions in American Music. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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  • Ensemble Modern. 1995. "Was ist experimentelles Musiktheater? Mitglieder des 'Ensemble Modern' befragen Hans Zender". Positionen: Beiträge zur Neuen Musik 22 (February): 17–20.
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  • Experimental Musical Instruments. 1985–1999. A periodical (no longer published) devoted to experimental music and instruments.
  • Gligo, Nikša. 1989. "Die musikalische Avantgarde als ahistorische Utopie: Die gescheiterten Implikationen der experimentellen Musik". Acta Musicologica 61, no. 2 (May-Aug): 217–37.
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  • Lucier, Alvin. 2002. "An einem hellen Tag: Avantgarde und Experiment", trans. Gisela Gronemeyer. MusikTexte: Zeitschrift für Neue Musik, no. 92 (February), pp. 13–14.
  • Piekut, Benjamin. 2011. Experimentalism Otherwise: The New York Avant-Garde and its Limits. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26851-7.
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  • Shultis, Christopher. 1998. Silencing the Sounded Self: John Cage and the American Experimental Tradition. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-377-9
  • Smith Brindle, Reginald. 1987. The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945, second edition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315471-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-315468-4 (pbk.)
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