Józef Klemens Piłsudski

Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Bước tới: menu, tìm kiếm
Józef Klemens Piłsudski
Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg
Chức vụ
Tiền nhiệm Independence
(eventually Regency Council)
Kế nhiệm Gabriel Narutowicz
(President)
Nhiệm kỳ không rõ – không rõ
Tiền nhiệm Stanisław Wojciechowski
Kế nhiệm Ignacy Mościcki
Nhiệm kỳ 2 tháng 10 năm 1926 – 27 tháng 6 năm 1928
Tiền nhiệm Kazimierz Bartel
Kế nhiệm Kazimierz Bartel
Nhiệm kỳ 15 tháng 8 năm 1930 – 4 tháng 12 năm 1930
Tiền nhiệm Walery Sławek
Kế nhiệm Walery Sławek
Nhiệm kỳ 27 tháng 8 năm 1926 – 12 tháng 5 năm 1935
Tiền nhiệm (post created)
Kế nhiệm Edward Śmigły-Rydz
Nhiệm kỳ 16 tháng 5 năm 1926 – 12 tháng 5 năm 1935
Tiền nhiệm (post created)
Kế nhiệm Tadeusz Kasprzycki
Thông tin chung
Đảng phái None (formerly PPS)
Sinh 5 tháng 12, 1867(1867-12-05)
Zułów (tiếng Litva: Zalavas), Litva, Đế quốc Nga
Mất 12 tháng 5, 1935 (67 tuổi)
Warsaw, Ba Lan
Chữ ký Józef Piłsudski Signature.svg
1928 reproduction of an 1887 Tsarist Russian wanted poster for Piłsudski, distributed (presumably by his political enemies) "on the 10th anniversary of Ba Lan's independence":

Józef Klemens Piłsudski[a] (5 tháng 12 năm 186712 tháng 5 năm 1935) là một Nguyên soái người Ba Lan. Từ giữa Chiến tranh thế giới thứ nhất, ông đã có ảnh hưởng lớn lên nền chính trị Ba Lan và nền chính trị châu Âu nói chung.[1] Vào đầu thời kỳ chính trị của mình, Piłsudski trở thành nhà lãnh đạo của Đảng Xã hội Ba Lan.

Gia đình[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kazimierz Ludwik Piłsudski
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kazimierz Piłsudski (1752 - ca. 1820)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Princess Rozalia Puzyna
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Piotr Paweł Piłsudski (1794 - 1851)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Walerian Billewicz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anna Billewicz (1761 - 1837)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Princess Połubińska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Józef Wincenty Piłsudski (1833 - 1902)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Count Wincenty Butler (??? - 1843)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Countess Teodora Urszula Butler (1811 - 1886)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Małgorzata Billewicz (??? - ca. 1861)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (1867 - 1935)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adam Billewicz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kacper Billewicz (??? - ca. 1840)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antoni Billewicz (1815 - 1860)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kownacka
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maria Billewicz (1842 - 1884)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joachim Michałowski (1744 – 1831)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wojciech Michałowski
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ludwika Taraszkiewicz (1784 – 1836)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Helena Michałowska (??? - 1846)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Count Wincenty Butler (??? - 1843)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Countess Elżbieta Butler (??? - 1894)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Małgorzata Billewicz (??? - ca. 1861)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Alabrudzińska, Elżbieta (1999). Kościoły ewangelickie na Kresach Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej (bằng Polish). Toruń: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika. ISBN 8323110875.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415161118. 
  • Biskupski, Mieczysław B. (2000). The History of Poland. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313305714. 
  • Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth (1998). The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment After 75 Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521621321. 
  • Charaszkiewicz, Edmund (2000). Trong Grzywacz, Andrzej; Kwiecień, Marcin; Mazur, Grzegorz (eds.). Zbiór dokumentów ppłk. Edmunda Charaszkiewicza (A Collection of Documents by Lt. Col. Edmund Charaszkiewicz) (bằng Polish). Kraków: Fundacja Centrum Dokumentacji Czynu Niepodległościowego—Księgarnia Akademicka. ISBN 8371884494. 
  • Cisek, Janusz (2002). Kościuszko, We Are Here: American Pilots of the Kościuszko Squadron in Defense of Poland, 1919–1921. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0786412402. 
  • Cohen, Stephen F. (1980). Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888–1938. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195026977. 
  • Cohen, Yohanan (1989). Small Nations in Times of Crisis and Confrontation. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791400182. 
  • Davies, Norman (1997) [1972]. Orzeł biały, czerwona gwiazda: Wojna polsko-bolszewicka, 1919–1920 (White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920) (bằng Polish). Kraków: Wydawnictwo ZNAK. ISBN 8370067611.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Davies, Norman (2003) [1972]. White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920 . London: Pimlico. ISBN 0712606947. 
  • Davies, Norman (1982) [1981]. God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231053525. 
  • Davies, Norman (2005) [1981]. God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199253404. 
  • Davies, Norman (1986) [1984]. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192851527. 
  • Davies, Norman (1998) [1996]. Europe: A History. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0060974680. 
  • Davidson, Eugene (2004). The Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0826215297. 
  • Drozdowski, Marian Marek; Szwankowska, Hanna (1995). “Przedmowa”. Pożegnanie Marszałka: Antologia tekstów historycznych i literackich (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii—Komisja Badań Dziejów Warszawy Instytutu Historii PAN: Oficyna Wydawnicza "Typografika". ISBN 8386417188.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Erickson, John (2001). The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918–1941 (ấn bản 3). Portland, OR: Routledge. ISBN 0714651788. 
  • Figes, Orlando (1996). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. London: Pimlico. ISBN 071267327X. 
  • Garlicki, Andrzej (1995). Józef Piłsudski. 1867–1935 (bằng Polish). London: Scolar Press. ISBN 1859280188. 
  • Goldfarb, Jeffrey C. (1991). Beyond Glasnost: The Post-Totalitarian Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226300986. 
  • Goldstein, Erik (2002). The First World War Peace Settlements, 1919–1925. London; New York: Longman. ISBN 0582311454. 
  • Grant, Thomas D. (1999). The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution. London: Praeger. ISBN 0275963500. 
  • Hehn, Paul N. (2005). A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941. New York; London: Continuum. ISBN 0826417612. 
  • Held, Joseph (1992). The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231076975. 
  • Hildebrand, Klaus (1973). The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520025288. 
  • Humphrey, Grace (1936). Pilsudski: Builder of Poland. New York: Scott and More. OCLC 775309. 
  • Hyde-Price, Adrian (2001). Germany and European Order. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719054281. 
  • Jabłonowski, Marek; Stawecki, Piotr (1998). Następca komendanta. Edward Śmigły-Rydz. Materiały do biografii (bằng Polish). Pułtusk: Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna w Pułtusku. ISBN 8390920808. 
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław (1991). Pilsudski: A Life For Poland. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0870527479. 
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław; Cisek, Janusz (1994). Kalendarium Życia Józefa Piłsudskiego (bằng Polish). Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. ISBN 8304041146.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Jordan, Nicole (2002). The Popular Front and Central Europe: The Dilemmas of French Impotence 1918–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521522420. 
  • Kenez, Peter (1999). A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521311985. 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2001). Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393322521. 
  • Kipp, Jacob (ed.) (1993). Central European Security Concerns: Bridge, Buffer, Or Barrier?. London; Portland, Ore.: F. Cass. ISBN 0714645451. 
  • Lerski, Jerzy Jan (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313260079. 
  • Leslie, R. F. (1983). The History of Poland Since 1863. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521275016. 
  • Lieven, Anatol (1994). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300060785. 
  • Lönnroth, Erik; Björk, Ragnar; Molin, Karl (1994). Conceptions of National History: Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 78. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110135043. 
  • Lukacs, John (2001). The Last European War: September 1939–December 1941 . New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300089155. 
  • MacMillan, Margaret (2003). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World . New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0375760520. 
  • Matuszak, Tomasz (17 tháng 6 năm 2006). “Epilog Legionów”. Historia Rzeczpospolitej: Zwycięstwa oręża polskiego (bằng Polish) (Rzeczpospolita, Mówią Wieki, Muzeum Wojska Polskiego) (16/20—"Historia bitew: Bitwa pod Kostiuchnówką"). 
  • Paulsson, Gunnar S. (2003). Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300095465. 
  • Pidlutskyi, Oleksa (2004). “Józef Piłsudski: The Chief who Created Himself a State”. Postati XX stolittia (Figures of the 20th century). Kiev: Triada-A. ISBN 9668290011.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp) (Reprinted in Zerkalo Nedeli (The Mirror Weekly), Kiev, February February 3–9, 2001, in Russian and in Ukrainian.)
  • Piłsudski, Józef (1989). Trong Urbankowski, Bohdan. Myśli, mowy i rozkazy (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Kwadryga. ISBN 8385082018.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Pipes, Richard (1993). Russia under the Bolshevik Regime. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0394502426. 
  • Plach, Eva (2006). The Clash of Moral Nations: Cultural Politics in Pilsudski's Poland, 1926–1935. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0821416952. 
  • Pobóg-Malinowski, Władysław (1990). Najnowsza historia polityczna Polski 1864–1945 (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. ISBN 8303031635.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Prizel, Ilya (1998). National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521576970. 
  • Quester, George H. (2000). Nuclear Monopoly. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0765800225. 
  • Roos, Hans (1966). A History of Modern Poland, from the Foundation of the State in the First World War to the Present Day (ấn bản 1). New York: Knopf. OCLC 396836.  (Translated by J.R. Foster from the German Geschichte der polnischen Nation, 1916–1960.)
  • Roshwald, Aviel (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–1923. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415242290. 
  • Roshwald, Aviel; Stites, Richard (2002). European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda, 1914–1918. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521013240. 
  • Roszkowski, Wojciech (1992). Historia Polski 1914–1991 (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN 8301110147.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Rothschild, Joseph (1990). East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295953578. 
  • Sanford, George (2002). Democratic Government in Poland: Constitutional Politics Since 1989. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333774752. 
  • Snyder, Timothy (2004). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 030010586X. 
  • Stachura, Peter D. (2004). Poland, 1918–1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415343585. 
  • Suleja, Włodzimierz (2004). Józef Piłsudski (bằng Polish). Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. ISBN 8304047063.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Torbus, Tomasz (1999). Nelles Guide Poland. Munich: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 3886180883.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Urbankowski, Bohdan (1997). Józef Piłsudski: Marzyciel i strateg (Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist) (bằng Polish) 1–2. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo ALFA. ISBN 8370019145. 
  • Watt, Richard M. (1979). Bitter Glory. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671226258. 
  • Władyka, Władysław (2005). “Z Drugą Rzeczpospolitą na plecach. Postać Józefa Piłsudskiego w prasie i propagandzie PRL do 1980 roku”. Trong Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.). Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989) (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University. ISBN 8389964449.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Zamoyski, Adam (1987). The Polish Way. London: John Murray. ISBN 0531150690. 
  • Żuławnik, Małgorzata; Żuławnik Mariusz (2005). “Powrót na łamy. Józef Piłsudski w prasie oficjalnej i podziemnej 1980–1989 (Return to the Newspapers: Józef Piłsudski in the Official and Underground Press, 1980–1989”. Trong Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.). Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989) (bằng Polish). Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University. ISBN 8389964449.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)

Đọc thêm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Czubiński, Antoni (ed.) (1988). Józef Piłsudski i jego legenda (Józef Piłsudski and His Legend). Warsaw: Państowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN 8301078197.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Davies, Norman (2001) [1984]. Heart of Europe, The Past in Poland's Present. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801260. 
  • Dziewanowski, Marian Kamil (1969). Joseph Pilsudski: A European Federalist, 1918–1922. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0817917918. 
  • Garlicki, Andrzej (1981). “Piłsudski, Józef Klemens”. Polish Biographical Dictionary (Polski Słownik Biograficzny) vol. XXVI (bằng Polish). Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk. tr. 311–324. 
  • Hauser, Przemysław; Dorosz, Janina (transl.) (1992). “Jozef Pilsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918–1921”. Polish Western Affairs (Poznań: Komisja Naukowa Zachodniej Agencji Prasowej) (2): 235–249. ISSN 0032-3039. 
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław (1989). Józef Piłsudski 1867–1935. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo LTW. ISBN 8388736256.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Piłsudska, Aleksandra (1941). Pilsudski: A Biography by His Wife. New York: Dodd, Mead. OCLC 65700731. 
  • Piłsudski, Józef; Gillie, Darsie Rutherford (1931). Joseph Pilsudski, the Memories of a Polish Revolutionary and Soldier. Faber & Faber. 
  • Piłsudski, Józef (1972). Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula. New York: Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America. ISBN B0006EIT3A Kiểm tra giá trị |isbn= (trợ giúp).  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)
  • Reddaway, William Fiddian (1939). Marshal Pilsudski. London: Routledge. OCLC 1704492. 
  • Rothschild, Joseph (1967). Pilsudski's Coup d'Etat. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231029845. 
  • Wandycz, Piotr S. (1970). “Polish Federalism 1919–1920 and its Historical Antecedents”. East European Quarterly (Boulder, Colorado) 4 (1): 25–39. ISSN 0012-8449. 
  • Wójcik, Włodzimierz (1987). Legenda Piłsudskiego w Polskiej literaturze międzywojennej (Piłsudski's Legend in Polish Interwar Literature). Warsaw: Śląsk. ISBN 8321605338.  Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ |isbn-status= (trợ giúp)

Chú thích[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Plach 2006, p. 14.

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]