Vườn quốc gia hang Mammoth

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Vườn quốc gia hang Mammoth
IUCN II (Vườn quốc gia)
Vị trí Các quận Edmonson, Hart, và Barren, Kentucky, USA
Thành phố gần nhất Brownsville
Tọa độ 37°11′0″B 86°6′0″T / 37,18333°B 86,1°T / 37.18333; -86.10000Tọa độ: 37°11′0″B 86°6′0″T / 37,18333°B 86,1°T / 37.18333; -86.10000
Diện tích 52.835 mẫu Anh (21.382 ha)
Thành lập 1 tháng 7, 1941
Lượng khách 503.856[1] (năm 2009)
Cơ quan quản lý National Park Service
Vườn quốc gia hang Mammoth
Welterbe.svg Di sản thế giới UNESCO
The Rotunda Room at Mammoth Cave.
Quốc gia Flag of the United States.svg Hoa Kỳ
Kiểu Tự nhiên
Hạng mục vii, viii, x
Tham khảo 150
Vùng UNESCO Châu Âu và Bắc Mỹ
Lịch sử công nhận
Công nhận 1981 (kì thứ 5)

Vườn quốc gia hang Mammothvườn quốc gia nằm ở trung tâm tiểu bang Kentucky, bao gồm hang động Mammoth, hệ thống hang động dài nhất trên thế giới từ trước tới nay. Tên gọi chính thức của hệ thống này là Hệ thống hang động mạch núi Mammoth-Flint (Mammoth-Flint Ridge Cave System) do có những mạch núi hình thành bên dưới hang. Khu này được công nhận là vườn quốc gia vào ngày 1 tháng 7, 1941. Nó trở thành Di sản thế giới vào ngày 27 tháng 10, 1981, và khu dự trữ sinh quyển thế giới ngày 26 tháng 9, 1990.

Phần diện tích 52.835 mẫu Anh (21.382 ha) của vườn quốc gia nằm chủ yếu ở quận Edmonson, với một phần nhỏ mở rộng về phía đông sang các quận Hart, và Barren. Vườn quốc gia này tập trung xung quanh sông Green, với một chi lưu là sông Nolin đổ vào sông Green ngay ngoài vườn quốc gia. Với tổng chiều dài hang hơn 390 dặm (630 km), hiện nay đây là hang dài nhất thế giới, dài gấp đôi hệ thống hang dài thứ nhì là hang Jewel của South Dâkot với chiều dài hơn 150 dặm (240 km).[2]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tài liệu tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tham khảo chung[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Bridwell, Margaret M. (Bridwell 1952) The Story of Mammoth Cave National Park Kentucky: A Brief History 11th Edition 1971. (First edition copyright 1952.) No ISBN.
  • Gulden, B. (Gulden 2005) NSS Geo2 USA Longest Caves. National Speleological Society. [1]
  • Hoskins, R. Taylor Faithful Visitor First Park Superintendent R. Taylor Hoskins describes the yearly visits of "Pete" a tame summer tanager (Piranga rubra rubra.) In "The Regional Review, Vol VII, 1 and 2 (July-August 1941.)
  • Hovey, Horace Carter (Hovey 1880) One Hundred Miles in Mammoth Cave in 1880: an early exploration of America's most famous cavern. with introductory note by William R. Jones. Golden, Colorado: Outbooks. (Copyright 1982) ISBN 0-89646-054-1
  • Watson, Richard A., ed. (Watson 1981) The Cave Research Foundation: Origins and the First Twelve Years 1957 - 1968 Mammoth Cave, Kentucky: Cave Research Foundation.

Sách của Brucker[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Roger W. Brucker [2] has co-authored four nonfiction books and authored one historical novel on the history and exploration of the Mammoth Cave System. They are presented here not in the order of publication, but in the order in which the events of the books' major narratives took place:

  • Brucker, Roger W. (2009) Grand, Gloomy, and Peculiar: Stephen Bishop at Mammoth Cave. Cave Books. ISBN 978-0-939748-72-3 (hbk) ISBN 978-0-939748-71-6 (pbk). Based on the true story of Stephen Bishop, the slave who gained fame as a guide and explorer at Mammoth Cave from 1838 until his death in 1857, this historical novel is written from the perspective of Bishop's wife, Charlotte. Although it is a novel, Brucker has claimed the book does not alter any known historical facts.
  • Brucker, Roger W. and Murray, Robert K. (Brucker and Murray 1983) Trapped: The Story of Floyd Collins. University of Kentucky Press. Told by a scholar of early 20th century journalism and a veteran of the modern period of Mammoth Cave exploration, this book details the events of the entrapment and attempted rescue of Floyd Collins, who was trapped in a cave near Mammoth Cave in January 1925.
  • Lawrence, Jr, Joe and Brucker, Roger W. (Lawrence and Brucker 1955) The Caves Beyond: The story of the Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave Expedition New York: Funk and Wagnell's. Reprinted, with new introduction, by Zephyrus Press ISBN 0-914264-18-4 (pbk.) Details the story of the 1954 week-long C3 expedition from the separate points of view of the leader and an ordinary participant in the expedition, who went on to become one of the leaders of the then-nascent modern period of exploration.
  • Brucker, Roger W. and Watson, Richard A. "Red" (Brucker and Watson 1976) The Longest Cave. New York : Knopf (reprinted 1987, with afterword: Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press) ISBN 0-8093-1322-7 (pbk.) A comprehensive story of the exploration of Mammoth Cave told by two of the founders of the Cave Research Foundation. An invaluable appendix, "Historical Beginnings", outlines the story of the cave from prehistory to the mid 1950s, where the main narrative begins. The formation of the Cave Research Foundation is described from an insider perspective. A highly personal telling, this work is sometimes jokingly or with irony referred to by cavers as Roger and Red Go Caving, though its revered status in the literature and the reputations of the authors are hardly in doubt. The 1989 reprint includes an Afterword by the authors referring to the 1983 Roppel-Mammoth connection and other subsequent events.
  • Borden, James D. and Brucker, Roger W. (Borden and Brucker 2000) Beyond Mammoth Cave: A Tale of Obsession in the World's Longest Cave. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-2346-X. Taking up where The Longest Cave leaves off, carries the story of Mammoth Cave Exploration from September 10, 1972 to September 10, 1983, when a connection was surveyed between Roppel Cave and the southern reaches of Mammoth Cave. Details the origins of the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition (CKKC).

Khảo cổ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Meloy, Harold (Meloy 1968) Mummies of Mammoth Cave: An account of the Indian mummies discovered in Short Cave, Salts Cave, and Mammoth Cave, Kentucky Shelbyville, Indiana: Micron Publishing Co., 1990 (Original copyright 1968, 1977).
  • Watson, Patty Jo (ed.) (Watson 1974) Archaeology of the Mammoth Cave Area. Reprinted 1997 by St. Louis: Cave Books ISBN 0-939748-41-X. 31 chapters by the foremost worker in the field of Mammoth Cave archaeology and several of her colleagues. The reprinted edition includes a brief new introduction and a brief updated bibliography.

Địa chất[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Brown, Richmond F. (Brown 1966). Hydrology of the Cavernous Limestones of the Mammoth Cave Area, Kentucky [Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1837]. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
  • Livesay, Ann, and McGrain, Preston (revised) (Livesay and McGrain 1962). Geology of the Mammoth Cave National Park Area. Kentucky Geological Survey, Series X, 1962. Special Publication 7, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky: University of Kentucky.
  • Palmer, Arthur N. (Palmer 1981) A Geological Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. Teaneck, New Jersey: Zephyrus Press. ISBN 0-914264-28-1. 196 pp. From the "blurb" on the back cover: "How did Mammoth Cave form? How old is it? Why does it look the way it does? What do the rocks tell us? These and many other questions are answered in this book about America's most popular cave." Written for the lay reader, but with much technical information of interest to those with greater scientific literacy, by a retired professor of geology at SUNY Oneonta.
  • White, William B. and Elizabeth L., eds. (White and White 1989) Karst Hydrology: Concepts from the Mammoth Cave Area. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold. ISBN 0-442-22675-6.

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]