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Thông tin hành tinh

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This template has been designed for the presentation of information on non-stellar astronomical bodies: planets (including extrasolar planets), dwarf planets, moons and Hành tinh vi hìnhs. Some parameters will not be applicable to individual types; these may be omitted without any problems to the template's function.

Usage notes[sửa mã nguồn]

  • This template expects that the <references /> tag will be present in articles setting the minorplanet parameter to yes. Pages without a <references /> tag will show Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page for a group named "note", but the references will not show without a <ref group="note"> tag; see Help:Cite errors. at the bottom of the page.
  • When parameters relating to Hành tinh vi hìnhs are used (e.g. mp_name), several subheadings and wikilinks within the template are made specific to minor planets. For standard formulas for computable values and sources of physical data, see Template talk:Infobox Nonstellar body#Computed values and Standard asteroid physical characteristics.
  • The Proper Orbital Element "Proper orbital period" (in Julian Years and Days) is calculated within the template from Proper Mean Motion and so does not require a parameter.
  • For bodies orbiting bodies other than the Sun, include the parameter |apsis = (appropriate suffix). This will replace various parameters' default "-helion" suffix to the suffix set by the apsis parameter. For example, setting |apsis = astron converts the labels "perihelion", "aphelion" and "Argument of perihelion" into "periastron", "apastron" and "Argument of periastron" respectively.

Recommended parameters[sửa mã nguồn]

For a list of all parameters, see All parameters below.

Exosolar planets[sửa mã nguồn]

name

280px
caption
Khám phá
Khám phá bởidiscoverer
Nơi khám phádiscovery_site
Ngày khám phádiscovered
Kĩ thuật quan sátdiscovery_method
Tên chỉ định
Tên thay thếalt_names
Đặc trưng quỹ đạo
Bán trục lớnsemimajor
Độ lệch tâmeccentricity
Chu kỳ quỹ đạoperiod
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 1avg_speed
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạoinclination
Khoảng cách gócangular_dist
Kinh độ cận tinhlong_periastron
Củng điểm quỹ đạotime_periastron
Biên độsemi-amplitude
Đặc trưng vật lý
Bán kính trung bìnhmean_radius
Diện tích bề mặtsurface_area
Thể tíchvolume
Khối lượngmass
Mật độ khối lượng thể tíchdensity
Hấp dẫn bề mặtsurface_grav
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 2escape_velocity
Suất phản chiếualbedo
Nhiệt độsingle_temperature
{{Thông tin hành tinh
| name               = <!--(Common/agreed name)-->
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| apsis              = astron
| discovery_ref      = <!--(Any appropriate <ref>(s) to append to the name)-->
| discoverer         = 
| discovery_site     = 
| discovered         = <!--(Date)-->
| discovery_method   = 
| alt_names          = <!--(Any alternative names for the body)-->
| periastron         = 
| apoastron          = 
| semimajor          = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = <!--(Orbital period)-->
| inclination        = 
| angular_dist       = 
| long_periastron    = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron    = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| semi-amplitude     = 
| mean_radius        = 
| surface_area       = 
| volume             = 
| density            = 
| mass               = 
| surface_grav       = <!--Equatorial surface gravity-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| albedo             = 
| single_temperature = 
}}

Minor planets[sửa mã nguồn]

name symbol

280px
caption
Khám phá[1]
Khám phá bởidiscoverer
Nơi khám phádiscovery site
Ngày khám phádiscovered
Tên chỉ định
Tên chỉ định tiểu hành tinhmp_name
Tên thay thếalt_names
Danh mục tiểu hành tinhmp_category
Đặc trưng quỹ đạo[2]
Kỷ nguyên epoch
Viễn điểm quỹ đạoaphelion
Cận điểm quỹ đạoperihelion
Bán trục lớnsemimajor
Độ lệch tâmeccentricity
Chu kỳ quỹ đạoperiod
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 1avg_speed
Độ bất thường trung bìnhmean_anomaly
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạoinclination
Kinh độ của điểm nút lênasc_node
Acgumen của cận điểmarg_peri
Vệ tinh tự nhiênsatellites
Các tham số quỹ đạo chuẩn[3]
Bán trục lớn chuẩnp_semi_major Đơn vị thiên văn
Quỹ đạo lệch tâm chuẩnp_eccentricity
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạo chuẩnp_inclination
Chuyển động trung bình chuẩn360 deg / yr
Chu kỳ quỹ đạo chuẩn1 yr
(365.25 d)
Củng điểm quỹ đạo tiến độngperihelion_rate arcsec / yr
Kinh độ của điểm nút lên tiến độngnode_rate arcsec / yr
Đặc trưng vật lý
Kích thướcdimensions
Khối lượngmass
Mật độ khối lượng thể tíchdensity
Hấp dẫn bề mặtsurface_grav
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 2escape_velocity
Chu kỳ tự quaysidereal_day
Độ nghiêng trục quayaxial_tilt
Vĩ độ hoàng đạo cựcpole_ecliptic_lat
Kinh độ hoàng đạo cựcpole_ecliptic_lon
Suất phản chiếualbedo
Nhiệt độ bề mặt min tr b max
Kelvin 150 200
Celsius -73
Kiểu phổspectral_type
Cấp sao tuyệt đối (H)abs_magnitude
{{Thông tin hành tinh
| width              = (default is 22em)
| name               = 
| symbol             = 
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| discovery_ref      = <ref>....</ref>
| discoverer         = 
| discovered         = 
| discovery_site     = ''discovery_site''
| mp_name            = <!--(Minor planet name)-->
| mp_category        = <!--(Minor planet category)-->
| alt_names          = <!--(Alternative names)-->
| orbit_ref          = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| epoch              = 
| aphelion           = 
| perihelion         = 
| semimajor          = 
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| inclination        = 
| asc_node           = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| mean_anomaly       = 
| arg_peri           = <!--(Argument of perihelion)-->
| p_orbit_ref        = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor        = 
| p_eccentricity     = 
| p_inclination      = 
| p_mean_motion      = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate    = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate          = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellites         = 
| dimensions         = 
| mass               = 
| density            = 
| surface_grav       = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| sidereal_day       = 
| axial_tilt         = 
| pole_ecliptic_lat  = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon  = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo             = 
| temp_name1         = 
| mean_temp_1        = 
| max_temp_1         = 
| temp_name2         = 
| max_temp_2         = 
| spectral_type      = 
| abs_magnitude      = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
}}

See here for means of semi-automating this template's transclusion as regards minor planets.

  • For satellites of minor planets, include the parameter |apsis = astron (see above).

Notes on usage[sửa mã nguồn]

From Wikipedia:WikiProject Astronomical objects/Infoboxes

Most of these entries should be measured in SI units. Some of them, however, should have more "human-accessible" units, in addition to SI units: several such cases are indicated with a second unit name in brackets. In the case of times (orbital periods, rotation), it is best to give all periods in days for comparison purposes, and provide a translation (in parentheses) into years, days, hours, etc.; whatever is most appropriate for the duration being described.

This template is very flexible. Moons with no atmosphere whatsoever could skip the atmospheric composition section entirely, for example (though atmospheric density would still be listed). Moons also wouldn't have their orbital radii listed in AU, since AUs are such large units. For planets, use "perihelion" and "aphelion" instead of "periapsis" and "apoapsis."

In the case of "number of moons" and "is a moon of", only one of these rows will be used by any given object. There aren't any moons with moons (yet), though perhaps "co-orbital with" might be a useful row to add in a few cases.

On orbital characteristics: The orbital circumference should be computed from the semi-major axis using Ramanujan's approximation for ellipses. The ratio of that circumference to the period then gives the average orbital speed. The minimum and maximum speeds follow from Kepler's laws: and . Note that, by convention, all orbital parameters are given in the primocentric reference system (heliocentric for the planets).

On proper orbital elements: The formulae used by the template to convert from proper mean motion to proper orbital motion are:
Oyears = 360 / M   and
Odays = 365.25 x Oyears

On physical characteristics: The surface area and volume of non-spherical objects (e.g. moonlets, asteroids) must use the proper ellipsoid formulae, because even slight departures from sphericity will make a large difference, particularly for the area.

On the subject of obliquity: Obliquity is the angle between the object's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit. Do not confuse this with the Tilt listed in the JPL pages, which is a measure of the angle between the local Laplace plane and the primary's equatorial plane. In fact, most inner moons have synchronous rotations, so their obliquities will be, by definition, zero. Outer moons simply have not been seen from close up enough to determine their true obliquities (although Phoebe, recently seen by the Cassini probe, is an exception; see Talk:Phoebe (moon) for the derivation of its obliquity).

All parameters[sửa mã nguồn]

{{Thông tin hành tinh
| width                  = <!--(Best given in font-proportional units such as 'em')-->
| name                   = 
| symbol                 = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| background             = 
| image                  = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| caption                = 
| apsis                  = 
| discovery_ref          = <ref>...</ref>
| discoverer             = 
| discovery_site         = 
| discovered             = 
| discovery_method       = 
| mp_name                = 
| pronounced             = 
| named_after            = 
| mp_category            = 
| alt_names              = 
| orbit_ref              = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| orbit_diagram          = <!-- image link, just like in prose. ex.: [[File:1992 TC orbital diagram.jpg|260px]] -->
| epoch                  = 
| aphelion               = 
| perihelion             = 
| periastron             = 
| apoastron              = 
| periapsis              = 
| apoapsis               = 
| semimajor              = 
| mean_orbit_radius      = 
| eccentricity           = 
| period                 = 
| synodic_period         = 
| avg_speed              = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| mean_anomaly           = 
| inclination            = 
| angular_dist           = <!--(Angular distance)-->
| asc_node               = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| long_periastron        = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron        = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| arg_peri               = <!--(Argument of peri[helion/astron/...])-->
| semi-amplitude         = 
| p_orbit_ref            = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor            = 
| p_eccentricity         = 
| p_inclination          = 
| p_mean_motion          = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate        = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate              = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellite_of           = 
| satellites             = 
| dimensions             = 
| flattening             = 
| equatorial_radius      = 
| polar_radius           = 
| mean_radius            = 
| circumference          = 
| surface_area           = 
| volume                 = 
| mass                   = 
| density                = 
| surface_grav           = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| escape_velocity        = 
| sidereal_day           = 
| rot_velocity           = <!--(Rotational velocity)-->
| axial_tilt             = 
| right_asc_north_pole   = <!--(North pole right ascension)-->
| declination            = <!--(North pole declination)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lat      = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon      = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo                 = 
| single_temperature     = 
| temp_name1             = 
| min_temp_1             = 
| mean_temp_1            = 
| max_temp_1             = 
| temp_name2             = 
| min_temp_2             = 
| mean_temp_2            = 
| max_temp_2             = 
| spectral_type          = 
| magnitude              = <!--(Apparent magnitude)-->
| abs_magnitude          = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
| angular_size           = 
| pronounced             = {{IPA-en|<!-- IPA string -->|}}
| adjectives             = 
| atmosphere_ref         = <ref>...</ref>
| surface_pressure       = 
| scale_height           = 
| atmosphere_composition = 
}}

Computed values[sửa mã nguồn]

This section documents how some minor planet parameters may be computed when they're not directly measured. More detail can be found in Standard asteroid physical characteristics.

Average orbital speed[sửa mã nguồn]

This is very simply the orbital circumference divided by the orbital period.

The exact circumference of an ellipse is , where a is the semi-major axis, e the eccentricity, and the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. This gives

E is close to when e is small.

An approximation using a taylor series expansion is

AstOrb Browser computes a velocity using Ramanujan's approximation for an ellipse's circumference:

Where b is the orbit's semi-minor axis:

Surface gravity[sửa mã nguồn]

Bài chi tiết: Surface gravity

For a spherical body of mass m, and radius r, the gravitational acceleration at the surface, is given by

Where G = 6.6742×10−11 m3s−2kg−1 is the Gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body, and r its radius. This value is very approximate, as most minor planets are far from spherical.

For irregularly shaped bodies, the surface gravity will differ appreciably with location. However, at the outermost point/s, where the distance to the centre of mass is the greatest, the surface gravity is still given by a simple formula, a slightly modified version of the above that uses the largest radius

because all the body's mass is contained within this radius.

On a rotating body, the apparent weight experienced by an object on the surface is reduced by the centrifugal force, when one is away from the poles. The centrifugal acceleration experienced at the equator is

where T is the rotation period in seconds, and is the equatorial radius (usually also the maximum radius used above). The negative sign indicates that it acts in the opposite direction to the gravitational acceleration g.

The effective surface gravity at the equator is then

Escape velocity[sửa mã nguồn]

For surface gravity g and radius r, the escape velocity is:

This value is much less sensitive to the factors affecting the surface gravity, mentioned above.

Temperature[sửa mã nguồn]

For asteroid albedo α, semimajor axis a, solar luminosity , and asteroid infrared emissivity ε (usually taken to be ~0.9), the approximate mean temperature T is given by:

Where σ is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. See also Torrence V. Johnson, Paul R. Weissman, Lucy-Ann A. McFadden (2007). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier. tr. 294. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3. .

Microformat[sửa mã nguồn]

Đánh dấu HTML được tạo bởi mẫu này bao gồm một hCard microformat, mà làm cho tên địa điểm và vị trí phân tích cú pháp bởi các máy tính, tự động hành động để phân loại bài viết trên Wikipedia hoặc thông qua một công cụ trình duyệt được điều hành bởi một người, để (ví dụ) thêm chủ đề vào sổ địa chỉ. Để biết thêm thông tin về việc sử dụng vi dạng trên Wikipedia, vui lòng xem dự án microformat.

hCard sử dụng các lớp HTML bao gồm:

  • "adr"
  • "tên-quận"
  • "fn"
  • "nhãn"
  • "địa phương"
  • "nickname"
  • "ghi chú"
  • "tổ chức"
  • "vcard"

Vui lòng không đổi tên hoặc xóa các lớp này.

References[sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ discovery_ref
  2. ^ orbit_ref
  3. ^ p_orbit_ref