Bản mẫu:Thông tin hành tinh

Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Buớc tưới chuyển hướng Bước tới tìm kiếm
Hình tượng tài liệu Tài liệu bản mẫu[xem] [sửa] [lịch sử] [làm tươi]

This template has been designed for the presentation of information on non-stellar astronomical bodies: planets (including extrasolar planets), dwarf planets, moons and Hành tinh vi hìnhs. Some parameters will not be applicable to individual types; these may be omitted without any problems to the template's function.

Usage notes[sửa mã nguồn]

  • This template expects that the <references /> tag will be present in articles setting the minorplanet parameter to yes. Pages without a <references /> tag will show Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page for a group named "note", but the references will not show without a <ref group="note"> tag; see Help:Cite errors. at the bottom of the page.
  • When parameters relating to Hành tinh vi hìnhs are used (e.g. mp_name), several subheadings and wikilinks within the template are made specific to minor planets. For standard formulas for computable values and sources of physical data, see Template talk:Infobox Nonstellar body#Computed values and Standard asteroid physical characteristics.
  • The Proper Orbital Element "Proper orbital period" (in Julian Years and Days) is calculated within the template from Proper Mean Motion and so does not require a parameter.
  • For bodies orbiting bodies other than the Sun, include the parameter |apsis = (appropriate suffix). This will replace various parameters' default "-helion" suffix to the suffix set by the apsis parameter. For example, setting |apsis = astron converts the labels "perihelion", "aphelion" and "Argument of perihelion" into "periastron", "apastron" and "Argument of periastron" respectively.

Recommended parameters[sửa mã nguồn]

For a list of all parameters, see All parameters below.

Exosolar planets[sửa mã nguồn]

Khám phá
Khám phá bởi discoverer
Nơi khám phá discovery_site
Ngày khám phá discovered
Kĩ thuật quan sát discovery_method
Tên chỉ định
Tên thay thế alt_names
Đặc trưng quỹ đạo
Bán trục lớn semimajor
Độ lệch tâm eccentricity
Chu kỳ quỹ đạo period
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 1 avg_speed
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạo inclination
Khoảng cách góc angular_dist
Kinh độ cận tinh long_periastron
Củng điểm quỹ đạo time_periastron
Biên độ semi-amplitude
Đặc trưng vật lý
Bán kính trung bình mean_radius
Diện tích bề mặt surface_area
Thể tích volume
Khối lượng mass
Mật độ khối lượng thể tích density
Hấp dẫn bề mặt surface_grav
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 2 escape_velocity
Suất phản chiếu albedo
Nhiệt độ single_temperature
{{Thông tin hành tinh
| name               = <!--(Common/agreed name)-->
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| apsis              = astron
| discovery_ref      = <!--(Any appropriate <ref>(s) to append to the name)-->
| discoverer         = 
| discovery_site     = 
| discovered         = <!--(Date)-->
| discovery_method   = 
| alt_names          = <!--(Any alternative names for the body)-->
| periastron         = 
| apoastron          = 
| semimajor          = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = <!--(Orbital period)-->
| inclination        = 
| angular_dist       = 
| long_periastron    = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron    = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| semi-amplitude     = 
| mean_radius        = 
| surface_area       = 
| volume             = 
| density            = 
| mass               = 
| surface_grav       = <!--Equatorial surface gravity-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| albedo             = 
| single_temperature = 

Minor planets[sửa mã nguồn]

name symbol
Khám phá[1]
Khám phá bởi discoverer
Nơi khám phá discovery site
Ngày khám phá discovered
Tên chỉ định
Tên chỉ định tiểu hành tinh mp_name
Tên thay thế alt_names
Danh mục tiểu hành tinh mp_category
Đặc trưng quỹ đạo[2]
Kỷ nguyên epoch
Viễn điểm quỹ đạo aphelion
Cận điểm quỹ đạo perihelion
Bán trục lớn semimajor
Độ lệch tâm eccentricity
Chu kỳ quỹ đạo period
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 1 avg_speed
Độ bất thường trung bình mean_anomaly
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạo inclination
Kinh độ của điểm nút lên asc_node
Acgumen của cận điểm arg_peri
Vệ tinh tự nhiên satellites
Các tham số quỹ đạo chuẩn[3]
Bán trục lớn chuẩn p_semi_major Đơn vị thiên văn
Quỹ đạo lệch tâm chuẩn p_eccentricity
Độ nghiêng quỹ đạo chuẩn p_inclination
Chuyển động trung bình chuẩn 360 deg / yr
Chu kỳ quỹ đạo chuẩn 1 yr
(365.25 d)
Củng điểm quỹ đạo tiến động perihelion_rate arcsec / yr
Kinh độ của điểm nút lên tiến động node_rate arcsec / yr
Đặc trưng vật lý
Kích thước dimensions
Khối lượng mass
Mật độ khối lượng thể tích density
Hấp dẫn bề mặt surface_grav
Tốc độ vũ trụ cấp 2 escape_velocity
Chu kỳ tự quay sidereal_day
Độ nghiêng trục quay axial_tilt
Vĩ độ hoàng đạo cực pole_ecliptic_lat
Kinh độ hoàng đạo cực pole_ecliptic_lon
Suất phản chiếu albedo
Nhiệt độ bề mặt min tr b max
Kelvin 150 200
Celsius -73
Kiểu phổ spectral_type
Cấp sao tuyệt đối (H) abs_magnitude
{{Thông tin hành tinh
| width              = (default is 22em)
| name               = 
| symbol             = 
| image              = 
| caption            = 
| discovery_ref      = <ref>....</ref>
| discoverer         = 
| discovered         = 
| discovery_site     = ''discovery_site''
| mp_name            = <!--(Minor planet name)-->
| mp_category        = <!--(Minor planet category)-->
| alt_names          = <!--(Alternative names)-->
| orbit_ref          = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| epoch              = 
| aphelion           = 
| perihelion         = 
| semimajor          = 
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| inclination        = 
| asc_node           = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| mean_anomaly       = 
| arg_peri           = <!--(Argument of perihelion)-->
| p_orbit_ref        = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor        = 
| p_eccentricity     = 
| p_inclination      = 
| p_mean_motion      = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate    = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate          = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellites         = 
| dimensions         = 
| mass               = 
| density            = 
| surface_grav       = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| sidereal_day       = 
| axial_tilt         = 
| pole_ecliptic_lat  = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon  = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo             = 
| temp_name1         = 
| mean_temp_1        = 
| max_temp_1         = 
| temp_name2         = 
| max_temp_2         = 
| spectral_type      = 
| abs_magnitude      = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->

See here for means of semi-automating this template's transclusion as regards minor planets.

  • For satellites of minor planets, include the parameter |apsis = astron (see above).

Notes on usage[sửa mã nguồn]

From Wikipedia:WikiProject Astronomical objects/Infoboxes

Most of these entries should be measured in SI units. Some of them, however, should have more "human-accessible" units, in addition to SI units: several such cases are indicated with a second unit name in brackets. In the case of times (orbital periods, rotation), it is best to give all periods in days for comparison purposes, and provide a translation (in parentheses) into years, days, hours, etc.; whatever is most appropriate for the duration being described.

This template is very flexible. Moons with no atmosphere whatsoever could skip the atmospheric composition section entirely, for example (though atmospheric density would still be listed). Moons also wouldn't have their orbital radii listed in AU, since AUs are such large units. For planets, use "perihelion" and "aphelion" instead of "periapsis" and "apoapsis."

In the case of "number of moons" and "is a moon of", only one of these rows will be used by any given object. There aren't any moons with moons (yet), though perhaps "co-orbital with" might be a useful row to add in a few cases.

On orbital characteristics: The orbital circumference should be computed from the semi-major axis using Ramanujan's approximation for ellipses. The ratio of that circumference to the period then gives the average orbital speed. The minimum and maximum speeds follow from Kepler's laws: and . Note that, by convention, all orbital parameters are given in the primocentric reference system (heliocentric for the planets).

On proper orbital elements: The formulae used by the template to convert from proper mean motion to proper orbital motion are:
Oyears = 360 / M   and
Odays = 365.25 x Oyears

On physical characteristics: The surface area and volume of non-spherical objects (e.g. moonlets, asteroids) must use the proper ellipsoid formulae, because even slight departures from sphericity will make a large difference, particularly for the area.

On the subject of obliquity: Obliquity is the angle between the object's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit. Do not confuse this with the Tilt listed in the JPL pages, which is a measure of the angle between the local Laplace plane and the primary's equatorial plane. In fact, most inner moons have synchronous rotations, so their obliquities will be, by definition, zero. Outer moons simply have not been seen from close up enough to determine their true obliquities (although Phoebe, recently seen by the Cassini probe, is an exception; see Talk:Phoebe (moon) for the derivation of its obliquity).

All parameters[sửa mã nguồn]

{{Thông tin hành tinh
| width                  = <!--(Best given in font-proportional units such as 'em')-->
| name                   = 
| symbol                 = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| background             = 
| image                  = <!--([[File:...]])-->
| caption                = 
| apsis                  = 
| discovery_ref          = <ref>...</ref>
| discoverer             = 
| discovery_site         = 
| discovered             = 
| discovery_method       = 
| mp_name                = 
| pronounced             = 
| named_after            = 
| mp_category            = 
| alt_names              = 
| orbit_ref              = <ref>Osculating Orbital Elements</ref>
| orbit_diagram          = <!-- image link, just like in prose. ex.: [[File:1992 TC orbital diagram.jpg|260px]] -->
| epoch                  = 
| aphelion               = 
| perihelion             = 
| periastron             = 
| apoastron              = 
| periapsis              = 
| apoapsis               = 
| semimajor              = 
| mean_orbit_radius      = 
| eccentricity           = 
| period                 = 
| synodic_period         = 
| avg_speed              = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| mean_anomaly           = 
| inclination            = 
| angular_dist           = <!--(Angular distance)-->
| asc_node               = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| long_periastron        = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron        = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| arg_peri               = <!--(Argument of peri[helion/astron/...])-->
| semi-amplitude         = 
| p_orbit_ref            = <ref>Proper Orbital Elements</ref>
| p_semimajor            = 
| p_eccentricity         = 
| p_inclination          = 
| p_mean_motion          = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate        = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate              = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellite_of           = 
| satellites             = 
| dimensions             = 
| flattening             = 
| equatorial_radius      = 
| polar_radius           = 
| mean_radius            = 
| circumference          = 
| surface_area           = 
| volume                 = 
| mass                   = 
| density                = 
| surface_grav           = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| escape_velocity        = 
| sidereal_day           = 
| rot_velocity           = <!--(Rotational velocity)-->
| axial_tilt             = 
| right_asc_north_pole   = <!--(North pole right ascension)-->
| declination            = <!--(North pole declination)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lat      = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon      = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo                 = 
| single_temperature     = 
| temp_name1             = 
| min_temp_1             = 
| mean_temp_1            = 
| max_temp_1             = 
| temp_name2             = 
| min_temp_2             = 
| mean_temp_2            = 
| max_temp_2             = 
| spectral_type          = 
| magnitude              = <!--(Apparent magnitude)-->
| abs_magnitude          = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
| angular_size           = 
| pronounced             = {{IPA-en|<!-- IPA string -->|}}
| adjectives             = 
| atmosphere_ref         = <ref>...</ref>
| surface_pressure       = 
| scale_height           = 
| atmosphere_composition = 

Computed values[sửa mã nguồn]

This section documents how some minor planet parameters may be computed when they're not directly measured. More detail can be found in Standard asteroid physical characteristics.

Average orbital speed[sửa mã nguồn]

This is very simply the orbital circumference divided by the orbital period.

The exact circumference of an ellipse is , where a is the semi-major axis, e the eccentricity, and the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. This gives

E is close to when e is small.

An approximation using a taylor series expansion is

AstOrb Browser computes a velocity using Ramanujan's approximation for an ellipse's circumference:

Where b is the orbit's semi-minor axis:

Surface gravity[sửa mã nguồn]

Bài chi tiết: Surface gravity

For a spherical body of mass m, and radius r, the gravitational acceleration at the surface, is given by

Where G = 6.6742×10−11 m3s−2kg−1 is the Gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body, and r its radius. This value is very approximate, as most minor planets are far from spherical.

For irregularly shaped bodies, the surface gravity will differ appreciably with location. However, at the outermost point/s, where the distance to the centre of mass is the greatest, the surface gravity is still given by a simple formula, a slightly modified version of the above that uses the largest radius

because all the body's mass is contained within this radius.

On a rotating body, the apparent weight experienced by an object on the surface is reduced by the centrifugal force, when one is away from the poles. The centrifugal acceleration experienced at the equator is

where T is the rotation period in seconds, and is the equatorial radius (usually also the maximum radius used above). The negative sign indicates that it acts in the opposite direction to the gravitational acceleration g.

The effective surface gravity at the equator is then

Escape velocity[sửa mã nguồn]

For surface gravity g and radius r, the escape velocity is:

This value is much less sensitive to the factors affecting the surface gravity, mentioned above.

Temperature[sửa mã nguồn]

For asteroid albedo α, semimajor axis a, solar luminosity , and asteroid infrared emissivity ε (usually taken to be ~0.9), the approximate mean temperature T is given by:

Where σ is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. See also Torrence V. Johnson, Paul R. Weissman, Lucy-Ann A. McFadden (2007). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier. tr. 294. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3. .

Microformat[sửa mã nguồn]

The HTML mark up produced by this template includes an hCard microformat, which makes the place-name and location parsable by computers, either acting automatically to catalogue article across Wikipedia, or via a browser tool operated by a person, to (for example) add the subject to an address book. For more information about the use of microformats on Wikipedia, please see the microformat project.

hCard uses HTML classes including:

  • "adr"
  • "county-name"
  • "fn"
  • "label"
  • "locality"
  • "nickname"
  • "note"
  • "org"
  • "vcard"

Please do not rename or remove these classes.

References[sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ discovery_ref
  2. ^ orbit_ref
  3. ^ p_orbit_ref