7,62×51mm NATO

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7.62×51mm NATO
NATO 7.62x51.jpg
7.62×51mm NATO rounds compared to AA (LR6) battery.
Kiểu đạn Rifle
Quốc gia chế tạo  Hoa Kỳ
Service history
Trang bị 1954-nay
Quốc gia sử dụng Hoa Kỳ, NATO, và các nước khác.
Sử dụng trong Chiến tranh Việt Nam, Falklands Conflict, Gulf War, Chiến tranh tại Afghanistan, Chiến tranh Iraq.
Thông số
Parent case .300 Savage
Kiểu vỏ đạn Rimless, Bottleneck
Đường kính đạn 7,62 mm (0,300 in)
Đường kính cổ 8,77 mm (0,345 in)
Đường kính thân 11,53 mm (0,454 in)
Đường kính dưới 11,94 mm (0,470 in)
Đường kính vành 12,01 mm (0,473 in)
Độ dày vành 1,27 mm (0,050 in)
Chiều dài vỏ đạn 51,18 mm (2,015 in)
Chiều dài tổng thể 69,85 mm (2,750 in)
Chiều dài rãnh xoắn nòng 1:12"
Primer type Large Rifle
Áp lực tối đa 415 MPa (60.200 psi)
Thông số đường đạn
Trọng lượng / Kiểu đạn Sơ tốc Năng lượng
146,6 gr (9,50 g) 2.756 ft/s (840 m/s) 2.472 ft·lbf (3.352 J)
Source: Popenker [1][2]

Đạn 7.62×51mm NATO (7,62×51) là loại đạn dài 51 mm và có đường kính 7.62 mm do các nước trong khối NATO (đặc biệt là Mỹ) sản xuất, phân phối và sử dụng cho các loại súng máy, súng bắn tỉa.

Military cartridge types[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Ball, M59 (United States): 150.5-grain 7.62×51mm NATO ball cartridge. A further development of the initial T65 cartridge.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Armor Piercing, M61 (United States): 150.5-grain 7.62×51mm NATO armor piercing round, black cartridge tip.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Tracer, M62 (United States): 142 grain (9,2 g) tracer cartridge, orange cartridge tip.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Grenade, M64 (United States): 7.62×51mm NATO grenade launching blank.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Ball, M80 (United States): 146-grain 7.62×51mm NATO ball cartridge.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Match, M118 (United States): 173-grain 7.62×51mm NATO Full Metal Jacket Boat Tail round specifically designed for Match purposes. Introduced in 1968 as XM118, standardized in 1970 as M118. Produced at Lake City Army Ammunition Plant.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Ball, Special, M118 (United States): 173-grain 7.62×51mm NATO Full Metal Jacket Boat Tail round specifically designed for match purposes. Produced by Lake City Army Ammunition Plant. This is an interim match round which utilized M80 ball brass with the 173 grain (11,2 g) FMJBT bullet. During this period in the early to late 1980s the performance of the round declined. Powder, primer, brass, bullets were no longer produced in matching lots.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Ball, Special, M118LR (United States): 175-grain 7.62×51mm NATO Hollow Point Boat Tail round specifically designed for long-range sniping. Produced at Lake City Army Ammunition Plant.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Duplex, M198 (United States): 7.62×51mm NATO duplex round with two 84 grain (5,4 g) bullets. The developmental designation was T314E3.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Tracer, M276 (United States): 7.62×51mm NATO so-called "Dim Tracer" with reduced effect primarily for use with night vision devices, green cartridge tip with pink ring.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Match, M852 (United States): 168-grain 7.62×51mm NATO Hollow-Point Boat-Tail cartridge, specifically designed for use in National Match competitions, later approved by US Army JAG for combat use by snipers.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP), M948 (United States): 7.62×51mm NATO Saboted Light Armor Penetrator cartridge.
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Armor Piercing, M993 (United States): 126.6-grain 7.62×51mm NATO armor piercing round, black cartridge tip.
  • Cartridge, Grenade, L1A1 (United Kingdom): 7.62×51mm grenade launching cartridge with one subvariant (L1A2) with unknown differences.
  • Cartridge, Ball, L2A1 (United Kingdom): 7.62×51mm ball cartridge, with three subvariants (A2-A4) with unknown differences.
  • Cartridge, Tracer, L5A1 (United Kingdom): 7.62×51mm tracer cartridge, designed to last out to 1000 meters. Four subvariants exist, with brighter ignition (A2), tracer reduced to 750 meters (A3), with a pistol powder charge (A4), and with improved ballistics (A5).
  • Cartridge, Ball, L42A1 (United Kingdom): 7.62×51mm ball cartridge, 155 grain round
  • Cartridge, Ball, L44A1 (United Kingdom): 7.62×51mm ball cartridge, 144 grain round
  • Cartridge, Caliber 7.62mm, NATO, Ball, F4 (Australia): 144-grain 7.62×51mm NATO ball cartridge. Australian equivalent to U.S. M80 round. In service with the Australian Defence Force.
So sánh các cỡ đạn khác nhau. Lần lượt từ trái sang phải là 7.62x54mm R, 7.62×51mm NATO, 7,62×39mm, 5,56×45mm NATO, 5,45×39mm


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