Knossos

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Knossos
Κνωσός
Knossos - North Portico 02.jpg
Restored North Entrance with charging bull fresco
Crete integrated map-en.svg
Crete, showing Heraklion, location of ancient Knōsos
Tên khác Cnossus
Vị trí Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Vùng North central coast, 5 km (3,1 mi) southeast of Heraklion
Tọa độ 35°17′53″B 25°9′47″Đ / 35.29806°B 25.16306°Đ / 35.29806; 25.16306Tọa độ: 35°17′53″B 25°9′47″Đ / 35.29806°B 25.16306°Đ / 35.29806; 25.16306
Loại Palace complex, administrative centre, capital of Crete and regions within its jurisdiction
Chiều dài North-south length of inhabited area is 5 km (3,1 mi)[1]
Chiều rộng East-west width of inhabited area is 3 km (1,9 mi) max.
Diện tích Total inhabited area is 10 km2 (3,9 sq mi). The palace building itself is 14.000 m2 (150.000 sq ft)[2]
Chiều cao Unknown
Lịch sử
Xây dựng Unknown
Nguyên liệu Ashlar blocks of limestone or gypsum, wood, mud-brick, rubble for fill, plaster
Thành lập The first settlement dates to about 7000 BC. The first palace dates to 1900 BC.
Bị bỏ rơi At some time in Late Minoan IIIC, 1380–1100 BC
Niên đại Neolithic to Late Bronze Age. The first palace was built in the Middle Minoan IA period.
Nền văn hóa Minoan, Mycenaean
Liên quan với In the Middle Minoan, people of unknown ethnicity termed Minoans; in the Late Minoan, by Mycenaean Greeks
Các ghi chú về di chỉ
Khai quật ngày 1900–1931
1957–1960
1969–1970
Các nhà khảo cổ học For the initial teams' work discovering the palace: Arthur Evans; David George Hogarth, Director of the British School of Archaeology at Athens; Duncan Mackenzie, superintendent of excavation; Theodore Fyfe, Architect; Christian Doll, Architect
For the additional work on the Neolithic starting in 1957: John Davies Evans
Tình trạng Restored and maintained for visitation. Evans used mainly concrete. Modern interventions include open roofing of fragile areas, stabilized soil, paved walkways, non-slip wooden ramps, trash receptacles, perimeter barbed wire fence, security lighting, retail store and dining room[3]
Thuộc sở hữu Originally owned by Cretans, then by Arthur Evans, followed by the British School at Athens, and finally by the current owner, the Republic of Greece.
Quản lý 23rd Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities
Mở cửa công chúng Yes
Website “Knossos”. British School at Athens. 
“Knossos”. Odysseus. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism. 2007. 
Current activity is preservational. Restoration is extensive. Painted concrete was used for wood in the pillars. The frecoes often were recreated from a few flakes of painted plaster.

Knossos hoặc Cnossos ( /ˈnɒsɒs/; tên khác: Knossus hoặc Cnossus /ˈnɒsəs/; tiếng Hy Lạp: Κνωσός, pronounced [knoˈsos]),là địa điểm khảo cổ lớn nhất thời đại đồ đồng trên đảo Crete và được xem là thành phố lâu đời nhất của châu Âu.[4]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Papadopoulos, John K (1997), “Knossos”, trong Delatorre, Marta, The conservation of archaeological sites in the Mediterranean region: an international conference organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and the Paul Getty Museum, 6–ngày 12 tháng 5 năm 1995, Los Angeles: The Paul Getty Trust, tr. 93 
  2. ^ McEnroe, John C. (2010). Architecture of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze Age. Austin: University of Texas Press. tr. 50.  However, Davaras & Doumas 1957, tr. 5, an official guide book in use in past years, gives the dimensions of the palace as 150 m (490 ft) square, about 20.000 m2 (220.000 sq ft). A certain amount of subjectivity is undoubtedly involved in setting the borders for measurement.
  3. ^ Stratis, James C. (tháng 10 năm 2005), Kommos Archaeological Site Conservation Report (PDF), kommosconservancy.org 
  4. ^ Todd Whitelaw 2012, tr. 223.

Sách tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

By Evans[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

By others[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Begg, D.J. Ian (2004), “An Archaeology of Palatial Mason's Marks on Crete”, trong Chapin, Ann P, ΧΑΡΙΣ: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr, Hesperia Supplement 33, tr. 1–28 
  • Benton, Janetta Rebold and Robert DiYanni.Arts and Culture: An introduction to the Humanities, Volume 1 (Prentice Hall. New Jersey, 1998), 64–70.
  • Bourbon, F. Lost Civilizations (New York, Barnes and Noble, 1998), 30–35.
  • Castleden, Rodney (1990). The Knossos Labyrinth: A New View of the 'Palace of Minos' at Knossos. London; New York: Routledge. 
  • Whitelaw, Todd (2000). “Beyond the palace:A century of investigation at Europe's oldest city”. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies: 223, 226. 
  • Davaras, Costos; Doumas, Alexandra (Translator) (1957). Knossos and the Herakleion Museum: Brief Illustrated Archaeological Guide. Athens: Hannibal Publishing House. 
  • Driessen, Jan (1990). An early destruction in the Mycenaean palace at Knossos: a new interpretation of the excavation field-notes of the south-east area of the west wing. Acta archaeologica Lovaniensia, Monographiae, 2. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit. 
  • Gere, Cathy (2009). Knossos and the Prophets of Modernism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226289540. 
  • Landenius Enegren, Hedvig. The People of Knossos: prosopographical studies in the Knossos Linear B archives (Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008) (Boreas. Uppsala studies in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern civilizations, 30).
  • Macdonald, Colin F. (2005). Knossos. London: Folio Society. 
  • MacGillivray, Joseph Alexander (2000). Minotaur: Sir Arthur Evans and the Archaeology of the Minoan Myth. New York: Hill and Wang (Farrar, Straus and Giroux). 
  • Pendlebury, JDS; Evans, Arthur (Forward) (2003) [1954]. A handbook to the palace of Minos at Knossos with its dependencies. Oxford; Belle Fourche, SD: Oxford University Press; Kessinger Publishing Company. 

Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]