Hội Thánh Đức Chúa Trời Toàn Năng

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Hội Thánh Đức Chúa Trời Toàn Năng
The Church of Almighty God.png
Phân loạiPhong trào Kitô giáo mới
Kinh thánhKinh Thánh, Lời xuất hiện trong xác thịt
Lãnh đạo hành chínhTriệu Duy San
VùngTrung Quốc (original)
Hàn Quốc, Hoa Kỳ, Canada, Ý, Pháp, Úc, and other countries (claimed)
Ngôn ngữHán ngữ tiêu chuẩn
Bắt đầu1991
Trung Quốc
Tên khácSét Đông
Trang mạngvi.godfootsteps.org
Hội Thánh Đức Chúa Trời Toàn Năng
Phồn thể 全能神教會
Giản thể 全能神教会
Tên tiếng Trung thay thế
Phồn thể 東方閃電
Giản thể 东方闪电

Hội Thánh Đức Chúa Trời Toàn Năng là một phong trào tôn giáo mới được thành lập tại Trung Quốc vào năm 1991,[1] mà các nguồn chính phủ Trung Quốc gán cho ba đến bốn triệu thành viên,[2] mặc dù các học giả coi những con số này là hơi cao.[3] Tên gọi "Tia sét phương Đông" được rút ra từ Tân Ước, Phúc âm Matthew 24:27: "Vì khi sét đến từ phía đông, và ngay cả ở phía tây, cũng là lúc con của Chúa sẽ trở lại." Giáo lý cốt lõi của nó là Chúa Giêsu Kitô trở lại Trái Đất trong thời của họ với tư cách là Đức Chúa Trời Toàn Năng nhập thể, lần này không phải là một người đàn ông mà là một phụ nữ Trung Quốc.[4] Phong trào này được chính quyền Trung Quốc coi là tà giáo [5](xie jiao (邪教; một thuật ngữ thường được dịch là cuồng giáo, nhưng thực tế được sử dụng từ thời nhà Minh để chỉ ra những lời dạy của Hồi giáo) [6] và bị buộc tội với nhiều tội ác khác nhau, bao gồm cả vụ giết người sùng bái Chiêu Viễn McDonald khét tiếng.[7] Đối thủ Kitô giáo và truyền thông quốc tế đã lần lượt mô tả nó như một cuồng giáo [8] và thậm chí là một "tổ chức khủng bố".[9] Giáo hội phong trào này phủ nhận tất cả các cáo buộc, và có những học giả đã kết luận rằng một số cáo buộc mà họ đã điều tra cho đến nay thực sự là sai hoặc cường điệu.[10]


Lịch sử[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

1989 revival và giáo phái Gào thét[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Although the movement never mentions her name nor any biographic details (while admitting she is female), and cautions that any information supplied by outside sources may be wrong,[11] several scholars believe it identifies the incarnate Almighty God with a Chinese woman, Dương Hướng Bân (tiếng Trung: 楊向彬; bính âm: Yáng Xiàngbīn; b. 1973), who was born in northwestern China.[12] In 1989, during a revival of the Chinese independent churches, the person identified by the movement as Almighty God formally entered the House church movement, i.e. the Protestant churches independent from the government, and began to utter words that followers compared for authority and power to those expressed by Jesus Christ.[13] At that time, she was attending meetings of the groups founded by Witness Lee, known as the Local churches in the West and as the Shouters in China,[14] as did most of her early devotees.[15] Many believers in the Chinese House Church movement believed that those words were from the Holy Spirit and started to read them in their gatherings in 1991, so that the origins of the church may be dated back to this year, although only in 1993 the person who was the source of these messages was recognized as Christ, the incarnate God, and the only one true God, and The Church of Almighty God emerged with this name.[16]

Triệu Duy San[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Triệu Duy San
Chức vụ
Administrative leader of The Church of Almighty God
Thông tin chung
Quốc tịchCộng hòa Nhân dân Trung Hoa Trung Quốc
Sinh(1951-12-12)12 tháng 12, 1951
A Thành, Cáp Nhĩ Tân, Hắc Long Giang, Trung Quốc

Among those who accepted the person and the message of Almighty God was Triệu Duy San (giản thể: 赵维山; phồn thể: 趙維山; bính âm: Zhào Wéishān; born December 12, 1951), the leader of an independent branch of the Shouters.[17] While some scholars regard Zhao as the founder of the movement,[18] others believe that this is due to a bias in the Chinese sources, which would not easily accept that a large religious movement was founded by a woman, and in fact the title of "founder" of The Church of Almighty God should rather be attributed to the (female) person the movement venerates as Almighty God.[19] According to Australian scholar Emily Dunn, in 1991, the organization had more than a thousand members. After being investigated and prosecuted by a local police station, Triệu left Heilongjiang Province and continued the organization in Qingfeng County, Henan, where it continued to expand.[20] He was later recognized as the leader and the Priest of The Church of Almighty God. The church insists that it is personally led and shepherded by the person it recognizes as Almighty God, and that Triệu, "the Man used by the Holy Spirit," is the administrative leader of the movement.[21]

Sự mở rộng và sự đàn áp[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Chinese government was immediately suspicious of The Church of Almighty God because of its anti-Communist teachings,[22] and the harsh repression of the mid-1990s targeted together the Shouters and The Church of Almighty God, whose theological differences were not necessarily clear to the Chinese authorities.[23] In 2000, Triệu and Dương went to the United States, where they entered on September 6, and in 2001 they were granted political asylum. Since then, they live in and direct the movement from New York.[24] In early 2009, Hà Triết Tấn (tiếng Trung: 何哲迅; bính âm: Hé Zhéxùn), who used to be in charge of the work of the Church in Mainland China, was arrested by the Chinese authorities. On July 17, 2009, Mã Toả Bình (female, 1969–2009; tiếng Trung: 馬鎖萍; bính âm: Mǎ Suǒpíng), who took over Hà Triết Tấn’s role, was also arrested by the Chinese police and died while in custody.[25]

Despite governmental repression, and the fact that some leaders of Christian mainline churches accused The Church of Almighty God of heresy,[26] the Church grew in China and, according to Chinese official sources, had reached three or even four million members in 2014,[27] although scholars regard these figures as somewhat exaggerated.[28] Since the Zhaoyuan McDonald's Cult Murder of 2014, the repression in China intensified, and several thousand members escaped abroad, where they founded churches in South Korea, United States, Italy, France, Spain, Canada, and other countries, in addition to those established in Hong Kong and Taiwan, with non-Chinese members also joining the movement.[29] An unattended consequence of the diaspora was the flourishing, in the countries where the Church of Almighty God can freely operate, of a considerable artistic production of paintings and movies, with some films winning awards in Christian movie festivals.[30]

Niềm tin[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Ba thời đại[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The “Eastern Lightning,” according to the Church, is Jesus Christ returning as Almighty God, from a country in the east, China, to inaugurate the third age of humanity, the Age of Kingdom, which follows the Age of Law, i.e. the time of the Old Testament, and the Age of Grace, which went from the birth of Jesus to the advent of Almighty God in the 20th century.[31] With Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross, the sins of humans were forgiven, but their sinful nature was not eradicated. In the Age of Kingdom, Almighty God is at work to eradicate that sinful nature.[32] In Almighty God’s own words, "Toàn bộ kế hoạch quản lý của Ta, một kế hoạch trải dài sáu ngàn năm, gồm có ba giai đoạn, hoặc ba thời đại như sau: mở đầu là Thời Đại Luật Pháp; Thời Đại Ân Điển (cũng gọi là Thời Đại Cứu Chuộc); và cuối cùng là Thời Đại Vương Quốc. Công việc của Ta ở ba thời đại này là khác nhau, tuỳ theo bản chất của mỗi thời đại, nhưng ở mỗi giai đoạn nó sẽ phù hợp với nhu cầu của con người"; và: "Though Jesus did much work among man, He only completed the redemption of all mankind and became man’s sin offering, and did not rid man of all his corrupt disposition. ... And so, after man was forgiven his sins, God has returned to flesh to lead man into the new age."[33]

Thánh thư[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

In The Church of Almighty God, the Bible is accepted as the holy scripture for the Age of Law and the Age of Grace, although it is argued that "recorded by human beings, it contains messages from God and some truthful insights, which are helpful to know God's work in the Age of Law and the Age of Grace, but it also carries many human errors."[34] In our time, the church believes that we find a safer guide in the utterances of Almighty God, which are recorded in the massive book The Word Appears in the Flesh, consisting of more than one million words, addressing a number of questions of sacred history, theology, ethics, and spirituality, and regarded as normative by the movement.[35]

Millennialism[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Church of Almighty God teaches a form of millennialism. Although they are parts of the Age of Word (giản thể: 话语时代; phồn thể: 話語時代; bính âm: Huàyǔ Shídài), the Age of Kingdom is not to be confused with the Age of Millennial Kingdom (giản thể: 千年国度时代; phồn thể: 千年國度時代; bính âm: Qiānnián Guódù Shídài), a future time following the apocalyptic disasters prophesied in the Bible, when the message of Almighty God will be accepted in all countries, humans’ sinful nature will be transformed, and humans purified by God’s work will live on earth eternally.[36] According to the church, after the incarnated Almighty God (who is not believed to live forever on Earth) will have completed God's work on Earth for the last days, the catastrophes prophesied in the Book of Revelation of the Bible will come, in the form of earthquakes, wars and famines. However, "the Earth will not be annihilated, and the ones who are purified by God will be saved in the cataclysms of the last days, and will live on Earth forever."[37] According to American scholar Holly Folk, "the division of history into several eras reflects the influence of the Plymouth Brethren and other evangelical missionaries in China. Dispensationalism, a method of Biblical interpretation that supports a cosmic view of history that includes the end times, was developed in the nineteenth century by John Nelson Darby," although there are also differences between Darby and The Church of Almighty God.[38]

Great Red Dragon[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Church of Almighty God believes that Almighty God is the returned Jesus in our days and was born in China, a country that, according to the church, represents at the same time the place where the evil Great Red Dragon (giản thể: 大红龙; phồn thể: 大紅龍; bính âm: Dà Hóng Lóng) of the Book of Revelation manifested itself in the semblance of the Chinese Communist Party and where the Second Coming of Jesus Christ must also manifest himself.[39] It is also believed that the Great Red Dragon "will fall by itself under the weight of its errors."[40] As Emily Dunn noticed, the theology identifying the Great Red Dragon with a political power that persecutes Christians has not been invented by The Church of Almighty God, but has a long tradition among Chinese Christians, including the Shouters.[41]

Absences of sacraments; worship[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Church of Almighty God believes that the sacraments, including baptism, were practices of the Age of Grace and have no place in the Age of Kingdom. Accordingly, there is no baptism in The Church of Almighty God, and one becomes a member of the church by confessing that the incarnated Almighty God is the Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the appearance of the only one true God in the last days, being willing to pray in the name of Almighty God, and being able to understand and accept the beliefs of The Church of Almighty God.[42] The absence of sacraments does not mean that gathering together, praying and worshiping God is not important for the members of the Church of Almighty God. They “fellowship” regularly by meeting and discussing their sacred scriptures, hearing sermons, singing hymns, and sharing testimonies; Italian scholar Massimo Introvigne observes that, in this sense, "the intensity of the religious life contrasts with a minimalist style of worship."[43]

Controversies[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Accusations of serious crimes against The Church of Almighty God, which frequently appears in the media, come from two sources: the Chinese Communist Party and other Christian churches.[44] The Chinese government and media periodically accuse The Church of Almighty God of crimes. The most frequent accusations concern four main incidents: the Zhaoyuan McDonald's Cult Murder of 2014, which was at the center of a BBC World Service’s news service in the same year,[45] the pulling out of a young boy’s eyes in 2013 in Shanxi,[46] the kidnapping of Christian leaders in 2002,[47] and riots connected to announcements that the end of the world will occur in 2012.[48]

Chinese official sources also occasionally mention other accusations: that riots were instigated by the church in 1998 in Hetang county, Chu Châu City, Hunan, where they reportedly broke the arms and legs, and cut the ears off their victims; that in 2010 members killed an elementary school student, leaving a lightning-like mark on one of the victim's feet, because one of his relatives was leaving the church; and that on an unknown date, a follower of Eastern Lightning killed her father before calmly turning herself in to the Public Security Bureau.[49]

In 2017, Western scholars, including Massimo Introvigne and Holly Folk, who had studied the church, were invited in Henan by the official China Anti-Cult Association for a conference on dangerous cults and The Church of Almighty God.[50] A second conference was organized by the same China Anti-Cult Association later in 2017 in Hong Kong, and scholars received from Chinese law enforcement officials information and documents on the crimes the latter regarded The Church of Almighty God as guilty of.[51] They observed that the additional accusations appear to be less frequently mentioned and less supported by documents with respect to the accusations concerning the four main incidents.[52]

While the Church is often accused to be "against the family," a study published by the same Introvigne in 2018 in Baylor University's Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion argued that in fact its theology of the family is quite traditional and conservative, and presented survey evidence showing that most of the Chinese members who escaped to South Korea, the United States and the Philippines were converted to The Church of Almighty God by members of their own family.[53]

Chiêu Viễn McDonald's cult murder[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

On May 28, 2014, six "missionaries" who claimed to represent the "Almighty God" sparked a national outcry when they attacked and killed a woman at a McDonald's restaurant in Zhaoyuan, a city in Shandong Province of China.[54] During an interview with a CCTV journalist, Trương Lập Đông (giản thể: 张立冬; phồn thể: 張立冬; bính âm: Zhāng Lìdōng), the lead attacker in what became known as the Zhaoyuan McDonald's cult murder, claimed that the subject rejected his daughter's request for her phone number and was called an "evil spirit" (邪灵), which prompted the six "missionaries" to attack. Zhang described in detail how they kept stamping the victim's head to the ground for about three minutes, and that "he felt great", but he deliberately avoided questions on the organization to which he belonged and his rank within the religious group.[55] Five of the "missionaries" (the sixth was a minor) were tried and convicted and on October 10. Two were sentenced to death and executed in 2015, one to life imprisonment, and the other two to 7 and 10 years in prison.[56]

The McDonald's murder was later studied by scholars of new religious movements such as Emily Dunn,[57] David Bromley and Massimo Introvigne.[58] They came to different conclusions with respect to earlier reports by most Chinese and Western media, and argued that the assassins were part of a small, independent cult not connected with Eastern Lighting, who used the words "Almighty God" to designate as a "dual deity" its two female leaders, Trương Phàm (tiếng Trung: 張帆; bính âm: Zhāng Fān; Trương Lập Đông's daughter, who was executed in 2015) and Lữ Nghênh Xuân (tiếng Trung: 呂迎春; bính âm: Lǚ Yíngchūn).[59] At trial, the defendants stated explicitly that, although they both used the name “Almighty God,” their group and The Church of Almighty God led by Zhao Weishan were two different organizations. One of the leaders, Lü Yingchun, declared, “the state labeled Zhao Weishan’s fake ‘Church of Almighty God’ as a[n] evil cult, and we label them as ‘evil spirits.’ Only Zhang Fan and I … could represent the real ‘Church of Almighty God.’ Zhang Fan and I are the unique spokeswomen for the real ‘Almighty God.’ The government has been cracking down on the Almighty God that Zhao Weishan believes in, not the ‘Almighty God’ we mention. They are fake ‘Almighty God,’ while we are the real ‘Almighty God.’”[60]

Case of Quách Tiểu Bân[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

On August 24, 2013, a woman pulled out the eyes of a young boy named Quách Tiểu Bân (tiếng Trung: 郭小斌; bính âm: Guō Xiǎobīn) in Sơn Tây. The boy later became internationally famous for the successful ocular prosthesis surgery performed in Shenzen.[61] After the Zhaoyuan McDonald's cult murder, some Chinese media attributed the crime to members of The Church of Almighty God.[62] A study by the American scholar Holly Folk, written after her participation in the two 2017 conferences organized by the China Anti-Cult Association, noticed that the Chinese police had closed the case in September 2013 by concluding that the crime was perpetrated by Quách Tiểu Bân’s aunt, and had nothing to do with The Church of Almighty God. Only after the McDonald’s murder in 2014 did some Chinese anti-cultists start to mention The Church of the Almighty God in connection with the incident.[63] Folk also noted that accusations of gouging out eyes of Chinese victims were a common theme in Chinese anti-Christian propaganda since at least the 19th century.[64]

Accusations of kidnapping Christian leaders[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Some leaders of other Christian churches have accused The Church of Almighty God both of “heresy” and of “sheep-stealing” through devious strategies.[65] Accusations include the claim that, in 2002, The Church of Almighty God kidnapped thirty-four leaders of the China Gospel Fellowship (CGF; giản thể: 中华福音团契; phồn thể: 中華福音團契; bính âm: Zhōnghuá Fúyīn Tuánqì) in order to convert them.[66] A number of Christians in the West found the accusations believable.[67] In a study published in 2018, Introvigne found inconsistencies in the story as told by the China Gospel Fellowship, found it strange that nobody was arrested or committed to trial for the crime, and concluded that it was not impossible that, by inventing the story of the kidnapping, the China Gospel Fellowship simply tried to find a justification for the fact that many of its members, including national leaders, had converted to The Church of Almighty God, although other interpretations of the accounts also remain possible.[68]

2012 doomsday predictions[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xem thêm: 2012 phenomenon

The doomsday apocalypse prediction concerning the year 2012 had wide popular traction in China where the film 2012 was popular and a few entrepreneurs made a profit building and selling "arks" to survive the putative apocalypse.[69] Within the global framework of the 2012 phenomenon, based on prophecies attributed to the Maya civilization, The Church of Almighty God was accused of predicting the end of the world for 2012, causing riots and even crimes around China.[70] Immediately prior to the “Maya” doomsday date of December 21, 2012, the Chinese government arrested 400 members of Eastern Lightning in central China,[71] and as many as 1000 from other provinces of China.[72] Chinese authorities also claimed that a certain Mẫn Ung Quân (giản thể: 闵拥军; phồn thể: 閔擁軍; bính âm: Mǐn Yōngjūn), who said he was motivated by the doomsday prophecies of the church, stabbed an elderly woman and 23 students at a school in Henan province.[73]

Australian scholar Emily Dunn, in what was the first scholarly book devoted to The Church of Almighty God in 2015, noted that, like many Chinese, some “members of Eastern Lighting embraced the Mayan prophecy” but they “appear to have done so without sanction from the group’s self-proclaimed authorities,” who in fact declared “Mayan” and other theories about the end of the world as theologically and factually “mistaken.”[74]

Introvigne noted that the position of the members of The Church of Almighty God who accepted and spread the prophecies about the end of the world in 2012, some of whom were expelled from the church, “was not consistent with the theology of the Church. Almighty God does not announce the end of the world, but its transformation. And this will not occur before the work of Almighty God on Earth is completed,” i.e. before the person recognized as Almighty God will pass away, while she was alive and well in 2012.[75]

2019 Israeli election[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

In weeks before the 2019 Israeli election, Twitter suspended dozens of Hebrew-language accounts run by The Church of Almighty God, that were amplifying right-wing religious messages.[76]

Refugee issues[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Particularly after the crackdown following the 2014 McDonald’s murder, thousands of members of The Church of Almighty God escaped to South Korea, the U.S., Canada, Italy, France, Australia, and other countries, seeking refugee status. While authorities in some countries claim that there is not enough evidence of the fact that asylum seekers have been persecuted, some international experts counter that with evidence that The Church of Almighty God is persecuted as a movement is enough to support the conclusion that members would face serious risks should they return to China, and decisions unfavorable to applicants are not justified.[77]

Fake news claims[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Church of Almighty God claims to be the victim of fake news campaigns instigated by the Chinese Communist Party. It insists that some flyers and banners depicted in Chinese and Western Web sites as evidence of its 2012 prophecies were in fact either fabricated or derived from alterations with Photoshop and other techniques of existing materials of the Church of Almighty God.[78] Some scholars have indeed studied certain Chinese campaigns against the Church as a classic example of fake news.[79] The Church has also denounced the existence in the United Kingdom of a false Web site “Church of Almighty God UK.”[80] Attempts by The Church of Almighty God to have it removed have been so far unsuccessful, despite scholars stating that the fact that the Web site does not represent the positions and theology of The Church of Almighty God should be obvious to anybody familiar with them.[81] A “Declaration Concerning Websites Imitating The Church of Almighty God” was issued by the Church denouncing the incident.[82]

See also[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Dunn (2008a).
  2. ^ Li (2014), Ma (2014).
  3. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  4. ^ Dunn (2008a); Dunn (2015), 62.
  5. ^ Irons 2018.
  6. ^ Palmer (2012).
  7. ^ Dunn (2015), 2-3.
  8. ^ Gracie (2014); Shen and Bach (2017).
  9. ^ Tiezzi (2014).
  10. ^ Dunn (2015), 204; Introvigne (2017a); Introvigne and Bromley (2017), Folk (2017).
  11. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  12. ^ Dunn (2015), 68-72.
  13. ^ Zoccatelli (2018), 8.
  14. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  15. ^ Folk (2018), 72.
  16. ^ Dunn (2015), 48; Introvigne (2017c).
  17. ^ Dunn (2015),48: "Other Chinese sources present a far more complex account of Eastern Lightning's origins. They charge a middle-aged man named Zhao Weishan, once a physics teacher or railroad worker, with founding the movement. These sources ... was a member of the Shouters in the late 1980s. He left the group with other believers in 1989 to form an offshoot called the Church of the Everlasting Foundation (永存的根基教会 Yongcun de genjijiaohui), in which he presented himself as a 'Lord of Ability' (能力主 nengli zhu). In May, 1992, a Chinese Christian magazine reported that a group called 'the New Church of the Lord of Ability' (新能力主教会 Xin nenglizhu jiaohui) had been distributing tracts and cassette recordings in the southwest Henan since March 1991."
  18. ^ Kindopp (2004), 141: “Similarly, a disgruntled Protestant Christian named Zhao Weishan broke from his church to establish the Eastern Lightning cult, also in Henan"; Aikman (2003), 242: “"Some time in the 1990s, the man regarded as the founder of Eastern Lightning, Zhao Weishan, came to the United States with a false passport and applied for—and in 2000 was granted—political asylum.”
  19. ^ CESNUR (2017).
  20. ^ Dunn (2015), 48.
  21. ^ Introvigne (2017c); Zoccatelli (2018), 9.
  22. ^ Dunn (2008b).
  23. ^ Introvigne (2017c); Irons (2018).
  24. ^ Dunn (2015), 49; Introvigne (2017c).
  25. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  26. ^ See e.g. China for Jesus (2002; upd. 2014); Chan and Bright (2005).
  27. ^ Li (2014), Ma (2014).
  28. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  29. ^ Zoccatelli (2018), 10.
  30. ^ Introvigne (2017b).
  31. ^ Folk (2018), 64.
  32. ^ Folk (2018), 61.
  33. ^ Quoted in Folk (2018), 61-63.
  34. ^ Folk (2018), 62.
  35. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  36. ^ Introvigne (2017c); see Church of Almighty God (2015).
  37. ^ Folk (2018), 66.
  38. ^ Folk (2018), 66.
  39. ^ Dunn (2008).
  40. ^ Introvigne (2019)
  41. ^ Dunn (2008).
  42. ^ Introvigne (2017c)
  43. ^ Introvigne (2017c)
  44. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  45. ^ Gracie (2014).
  46. ^ Lai and others (2014).
  47. ^ Shen and Bach (2017).
  48. ^ Dunn (2015), 94.
  49. ^ China People's Daily (2014); Gracie (2014).
  50. ^ KKNews (2017).
  51. ^ Zoccatelli (2018), 6.
  52. ^ Folk (2017); Introvigne (2017c).
  53. ^ Introvigne (2018b).
  54. ^ Gracie (2014).
  55. ^ Sina Video (2014).
  56. ^ BBC News (2014).
  57. ^ Dunn (2015), 204.
  58. ^ Introvigne (2017a); Introvigne (2018d); Introvigne and Bromley (2017), Introvigne (2019), which also includes a short video.
  59. ^ Introvigne (2017a); Introvigne and Bromley (2017).
  60. ^ The Beijing News (2014).
  61. ^ Irvine (2014).
  62. ^ Lai and others (2014).
  63. ^ Folk (2017).
  64. ^ Folk (2017), 101.
  65. ^ See e.g. China for Jesus (2002, upd. 2014).
  66. ^ Shen and Bach (2017).
  67. ^ See e.g. Aikman (2003), 81 and 267; Chan and Bright (2005).
  68. ^ Introvigne (2018a).
  69. ^ Dunn (2016).
  70. ^ Dunn (2016).
  71. ^ Patranobis (2012).
  72. ^ Jacobs (2012).
  73. ^ China People's Daily (2014).
  74. ^ Dunn (2015), 95.
  75. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  76. ^ “Israel Election: Twitter Suspended Dozens Of Hebrew-Language Accounts Run By A Strange Chinese Religious Sect”. BuzzFeed News (bằng tiếng Anh). Truy cập ngày 8 tháng 4 năm 2019. 
  77. ^ Šorytė (2018).
  78. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  79. ^ Introvigne (2018c).
  80. ^ See the (false) Web site "Church of Almighty God UK 英国全能神教会," Lưu trữ 2018-02-21 tại Wayback Machine. last accessed February 20, 2018.
  81. ^ Introvigne (2017c).
  82. ^ Introvigne (2017c).

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