Giải Nobel Sinh lý và Y khoa
|The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Trao cho||Discoveries in physiology or medicine that led to benefit for mankind|
|Tổ chức trao giải||Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet|
|Địa điểm||Solna within the Stockholm urban area|
|Lần đầu tiên||1901|
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (tiếng Thụy Điển: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will. Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories. The Nobel prize is presented to the recipient(s) at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side is unique to this medal.
As of 2011, 102 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 199 men and 10 women. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes. In 2011, the prize was awarded to Bruce Beutler of the Hoa Kỳ and Jules A. Hoffmann of France "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and to Ralph M. Steinman of Canada "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity."
Some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal leucotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over who was included in the award. The 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, and half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz who was not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins for their work on DNA structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin who had died by the time of the nomination. Since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, one prize being awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Also forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients, and since in the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, this rule has resulted in controversial exclusions.
Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Thư mục[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- Bishop, J. Michael (2004). How to Win the Nobel Prize: An Unexpected Life in Science. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01625-4.
- Doherty, Peter (2008). The Beginner's Guide to Winning the Nobel Prize: Advice for Young Scientists. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13897-0.
- Feldman, Burton (2001). The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-592-2.
- Foundation Books National Council of Science (2005). Nobel Prize Winners in Pictures. Foundation Books. tr. viii. ISBN 81-7596-245-3. Đã bỏ qua tham số không rõ
- Judson, Horace (2004). The great betrayal: fraud in science. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-100877-9.
- Leroy, Francis (2003). A century of Nobel Prizes recipients: chemistry, physics, and medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-0876-8.
- Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin (2001). Trong Nils Ringertz. The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. Imperial College Press and World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 981-02-4664-1.
- Rifkind, David; Freeman, Geraldine L. (2005). The Nobel Prize winning discoveries in infectious diseases. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-369353-5.
- Shalev, Baruch Aba (2002). 100 years of Nobel prizes. Americas Group. ISBN 0-935047-37-9.
- Sohlman, Ragnar (1983). The Legacy of Alfred Nobel – The Story Behind the Nobel Prizes . The Nobel Foundation. ISBN 0-370-30990-1.
- Wilhelm, Peter (1983). The Nobel Prize . Springwood Books. ISBN 978-0-86254-111-8.
Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
|Wikimedia Commons có thêm thể loại hình ảnh và tài liệu về Giải Nobel Sinh lý và Y khoa|
- All Nobel Laureates in Medicine – Index webpage on the official site of the Nobel Foundation.
- The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Official site of the Nobel Foundation.
- Graphics: National Medicine Nobel Prize shares 1901-2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1