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Giải đua xe MotoGP

MotoGP là giải thể thao tốc độ số một thế giới về mảng đua moto được tổ chức ở các trường đua đường nhựa. Các cuộc đua xe moto riêng lẻ đã được tổ chức từ đầu thế kỷ 20 [1] và những cuộc đua lớn nhất trong số đó được gọi là các  Grand Prix,[2] Tổ chức được thành lập để điều hành các giải đua xe moto quốc tế là Liên đoàn đua xe moto quốc tế, viết tắt là, FIM trong năm 1949 đã thống nhất các quy định và tổ chức giải đua MotoGP vòng quanh thế giới đầu tiên, tên chính thức tiếng Anh là FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix. Nó chính là giải đua xe vô địch thế giới.lâu đời nhất thế giới[3]

Trước đây MotoGP là tên gọi chung của 3 thể thức đua là 500cc, 250cc và 125cc. Từ năm 2002 tên gọi MotoGP được thay cho thể thức 500cc.

Hiện tại, giải đua MotoGP bao gồm 3 thể thức là MotoGP, Moto2 (thay thế thể thức 250cc) và Moto3 (thay thế thể thức 125cc).

Tổng quát[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are generally unavailable for purchase by the general public or able to be ridden legally on public roads. This contrasts with the various production-based categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship and the Isle of Man TT Races that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.

The championship is currently divided into three classes: MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3. All three classes use four-stroke engines. In 2010 the 250cc class was replaced by the new Moto2 600 cc four-stroke class. In 2012 the 125cc class was replaced by the Moto3 250cc four-stroke class with a weight limit of 65 kg with fuel, and the engine capacity for MotoGP increased from 800 cc to 1,000 cc.

Previously, the championship featured a 50cc class from 1962 to 1983; an 80cc class from 1984 to 1989; a 350cc class from 1949 to 1982; and a 750 cc class from 1977 to 1979.

Unlike races such as the TT Formulae, or Moto-Cross, where two and four strokes had different engine size limits in the same class, until 2002 GP racing set the upper limit the same for both types of engines in all its classes. After that, MotoGP gave the four-strokes a 490cc advantage over the two-strokes. A 2 stroke engine produces power with every rotation of the crank, where as the 4 stroke engine produces power every second rotation. In theory, a 500cc 2stroke produces the same power as a 1000cc 4 stroke, however there are many differences between the two configurations. Carburation vs fuel injection, engine mapping, power/torque curves, and throttle response are a few major differences. Practice showed the 4 strokes generating 10 to 15 more Hp and turning in much faster lap times than their 2 stroke counterparts. 4 stroke engines would be the obvious choice for years to come. Moto2 and 3 are four-stroke only.

A FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949. The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sport sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association (IRTA) and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association (MSMA). Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members.[4] These four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission.

There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50 cc, 80 cc, 125 cc, 250 cc, 350 cc, and 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, and 350 cc and 500 cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders (meaning smaller pistons, producing higher revs) and a multiplicity of gears (giving narrower power bands, affording higher states of tune). In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes.

In 1969, the FIM — citing high development costs for non-works teams — brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears and most to two cylinders (four cylinders in the case of the 350 cc and 500 cc classes). This led to a mass walk-out of the sport by the previously highly successful Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha manufacturer teams, skewing the results tables for the next several years, with MV Agusta effectively the only works team left in the sport until Yamaha (1973) and Suzuki (1974) returned with new two-stroke designs. By this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda, on its return to GP racing, made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and, in 1983, even Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500.

The 50 cc class was replaced by an 80 cc class, then the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish and Italian makes. The 350 cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from world championship events in the 1990s (see Superside), reducing the field to 125s, 250s, and 500s.

Xe Yamaha YZR-M1 (2006)

MotoGP, the premier class of GP motorcycle racing, has changed dramatically in recent years. From the mid-1970s through to 2001, the top class of GP racing allowed 500 cc displacement with a maximum of four cylinders, regardless of whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke. Consequently, all machines were two-strokes, due to the greater power output for a given engine capacity. Some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 500s were seen, but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under the rules, typically attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, they lacked the power of the four-cylinder machines.

In 2002, rule changes were introduced to facilitate the phasing out of the two-strokes. The rules permitted manufacturers to choose between running two-stroke engines of 500 cc or less or four-strokes of 990 cc or less. Manufacturers were also permitted to employ their choice of engine configuration. Despite the significantly increased costs involved in running the new four-stroke machinery, given their extra 490cc capacity advantage, the four-strokes were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals. As a result, by 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field. The 125 cc and 250 cc classes still consisted exclusively of two-stroke machines.

In 2007, the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity reduced to 800 cc for a minimum of five years. For the 2012 season the capacity has increased again to 1,000 cc.[5]

Tập tin:MotoGP-kal.png
Một mùa giải MotoGP điển hình

The 2008 racing calendar consisted of 18 rounds in 15 different countries (Qatar, Spain which hosted three rounds, Portugal, China, France, Italy, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, the US which hosted two rounds, Czech Republic, San Marino, Japan, Australia and Malaysia). Exclusive to the MotoGP class, there was also a US round at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca in Monterey, California, for the 800 cc class only; this was because the paddock was not large enough to also include the other two classes. In 2008, a MotoGP event was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the first time on a newly prepared track. All three classes were scheduled to race but severe wind and rain prevented the 250 cc class from racing. MotoGP racing at Indianapolis is counterclockwise, with a "snake pit" complex past the start-finish line before heading down the turn one short-chute and into the infield section.

The grid is composed of three columns (four for the 125 cc and 250 cc classes) and contains approximately 20 riders. Grid positions are decided in descending order of qualifying speed, with the fastest on the pole or first position. Races last approximately 45 minutes, each race is a sprint from start to finish without pitting for fuel or tyres.

In 2005, a flag-to-flag rule for MotoGP was introduced. Previously, if a race started dry and rain fell, officials could red-flag (stop) the race and either restart or resume on 'wet' tyres. Now, when rain falls, a white flag is shown, indicating that riders can pit to swap the motorcycle on which they started the race for an identical one, as long as the tyres are different (that is, intermediates or slicks instead of wets)[1]. Besides different tyres, the wet-weather bikes have steel brake rotors and different brake pads instead of the carbon discs and pads used on the 'dry' bikes. This is because the carbon brakes need to be very hot to function properly, and the water cools them too much. The suspension is also 'softened' up somewhat for the wet weather.

When a rider crashes, track marshals up the track from the incident wave yellow flags, prohibiting passing in that area; one corner farther up the track, a stationary yellow flag is shown. If a fallen rider cannot be evacuated safely from the track, the race is red-flagged. Motorcycle crashes are usually one of two types: lowside, when the bike loses either front or rear tire grip and slides out on the "low" side, and the more dangerous highside, when the tires don't completely slide out, but instead grip the track surface, flipping the bike over to the "high side", usually catapulting the rider over the top. Increased use of traction control has made highsides much less frequent.

According to one estimate, leasing a top-level motorcycle for a rider costs about 3 to 3.5 million dollars for a racing season.[6]

As a result of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, MotoGP underwent changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reducing Friday practice sessions, banning active suspension, launch control and ceramic composite brakes, extending the lifespan of engines, and reducing testing sessions.[7]

Mốc thời gian[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • 1949: Start of the world championship in Grand Prix motorcycle racing for five separate categories, 125cc, 250cc, 350cc, 500cc and sidecars. Harold Daniell wins the first ever 500 cc Grand Prix race held at the Isle of Man TT.[8]
  • 1951: Sidecars reduced in engine capacity from 600 cc to 500 cc
  • 1957: Gilera, Mondial and Moto Guzzi withdraw at the end of the season citing increasing costs. Bob McIntyre wins the longest ever Grand Prix race of 301.84 miles, held over 8 laps of the Isle of Man.
  • 1958: MV Agusta win the constructors' and riders' championships in all four solo classes, a feat the team repeat in 1959 and 1960.
  • 1959: Honda enters the Isle of Man TT for the first time..
  • 1961: The 1961 Argentine Grand Prix is the first world championship race held outside of Europe.
  • 1963: The 1963 Japanese Grand Prix is the first world championship race held in Asia.
  • 1964: The 1964 United States Grand Prix is the first world championship race held in North America.
  • 1966: Honda wins the constructors' championship in all five solo classes. Jim Redman wins Honda's first ever 500 cc Grand Prix at Hockenheim, also the first win for a Japanese factory in the premier class.
  • 1967: Final year of unrestricted numbers of cylinders and gears. Honda withdraws in protest.
  • 1968: Giacomo Agostini (MV Agusta) wins both the 350 cc and 500 cc titles
  • 1969: Godfrey Nash riding a Norton Manx becomes the last rider to win a 500 cc Grand Prix riding a single-cylinder machine.
  • 1971: Jack Findlay rides a Suzuki TR500 to the first ever win in the 500 cc class for a two-stroke machine.
  • 1972: as 1968. The death of Gilberto Parlotti at the Isle of Man TT causes multiple world champion Giacomo Agostini and other riders to boycott the next four events on grounds of safety.
  • 1972: Last year of 500 cc sidecars.
  • 1972: Giacomo Agostini wins his seventh consecutive 500cc championship, all with MV Agusta.
  • 1973: Deaths of Jarno Saarinen and Renzo Pasolini at the Italian round at Monza
  • 1974: The Suzuki RG500 is the first square-four in the 500 cc class. The constructors' title is won by a Japanese brand and a two-stroke for the first time (Yamaha).
  • 1975: Giacomo Agostini (Yamaha) wins the 500 cc class. Yamaha was the first non European brand to win the riders' championship.
  • 1976: Barry Sheene wins the first 500 cc championship for Suzuki. After the 1976 Isle of Man TT, the FIM gives in to the riders' boycott and removes the event from the Grand Prix calendar.
  • 1977: 750 FIM prize becomes a world championship for 750cc machines.[9] Barry Sheene wins the 500 cc class. The British Grand Prix moves from the Isle of Man to the Silverstone Circuit on the British mainland.
  • 1978: Kenny Roberts (Yamaha) wins the 500 cc class, the first American to do so.
  • 1979: Last year of the 750 cc class
  • 1980: Patrick Pons (Yamaha 500 cc) and Malcolm White (passenger Phil Love) (sidecar) are both killed in the British GP at Silverstone.
  • 1982: Jock Taylor (passenger Benga Johansson)(Windle-Yamaha) is killed at the Finnish sidecar GP. Imatra is subsequently removed from the GP calendar.
  • 1982: Last year of 350 cc class
  • 1983: Freddie Spencer (Honda) wins the 500 cc class. Spencer and Kenny Roberts win all 500cc races for the season between them.
  • 1984: Michelin introduces radial tyres in GPs.
  • 1984: 50 cc class replaced by 80 cc.
  • 1987: Push starts are eliminated
  • 1987: Wayne Gardner (Honda) wins the 500 cc class, the first Australian to do so.
  • 1988: Wayne Rainey wins the first 500 cc race using carbon brakes, at the British GP
  • 1988: Alfred Heck (passenger Andreas Räcke) is killed during free practice in the French Sidecar GP
  • 1989: Iván Palazzese (Aprilia) is killed in 250 cc West German GP at Hockenheim
  • 1989: Last year of 80 cc class
  • 1990: 500 cc grid switches from five to four bikes per row
  • 1992: Honda introduces the NSR500 with a big bang engine
  • 1993: Shinichi Itoh and his fuel-injected NSR500 break the 200 mph (320 km/h) barrier at the German GP at Hockenheim
  • 1993: Nobuyuki Wakai (Suzuki) is killed during the practice session of the 250 cc GP in Spain.
  • 1993: Three-time 500cc champion and then title holder Wayne Rainey (Yamaha) is paralyzed following a crash at Misano.
  • 1994: Simon Prior, passenger of Yoshisada Kumagaya, on an LCR-ADM, is killed in a crash involving seven outfits in the Sidecar GP at Hockenheim
  • 1998: 500 cc switch to unleaded fuel.
  • 1998: Mick Doohan wins his fifth consecutive 500cc title, all with Honda.
  • 1999: Alex Criville (Honda) wins the 500 cc class, the first Spaniard to do so.
  • 2000: Kenny Roberts Jr. (suzuki) wins the 500 cc class, he joins his father Kenny Roberts to claim the championship and thus making them the only father - son to win the 500cc championship.
  • 2001: Valentino Rossi wins his first premier class title and becomes the final two-stroke champion in the premium series.
  • 2002: MotoGP replaces the 500 cc class; Four-Strokes are re-introduced and get an increase to 990cc but two-strokes stay at 500cc.
  • 2003: Ducati makes its Grand Prix debut in the new four-stroke MotoGP class.
  • 2003: Daijiro Kato is killed during the Japanese GP in the MotoGP class at Suzuka when he hits the barrier at 340R (Formula One car driver Allan McNish had a serious crash during the Formula One Grand Prix the previous October there, resulting in a reprofiled 130R for 2003, known as 85R and 340R.).
  • 2004: MotoGP grid switches from four to three bikes per row while 250cc and 125cc classes retains four bikes per row in 2004 beyond.
  • 2004: Makoto Tamada earns Bridgestone their first MotoGP victory at the Brazilian GP.
  • 2005: MotoGP adopts flag-to-flag rule, allowing riders to pit and switch to bikes fitted with wet-weather tyres and continue if rain begins to fall mid-race.
  • 2005: Valentino Rossi wins his fifth consecutive MotoGP title.
  • 2007: MotoGP engine capacity is restricted to 800 cc four-strokes. Ducati wins the riders' championship with Casey Stoner and constructor title, the first European brand to do so in the premier class in 30 years.
  • 2008: MotoGP runs its first night race in Qatar.
  • 2008: Dunlop drops out of MotoGP.
  • 2009: Michelin drops out of MotoGP and Bridgestone becomes the sole tyre provider.[10][11]
  • 2009: Kawasaki for the very first time running a single bike as Hayate Racing Team.
  • 2010: Moto2 replaces the 250cc GP class. All engines are built for Moto2 by Honda and are four-stroke 600cc in-line four-cylinder producing ~125 bhp and rev up to 16000 rpm.
  • 2010: Moto2 rider Shoya Tomizawa is killed at Misano.
  • 2010: For the first time, Spain hosts four Grands Prix in a single year.
  • 2010: 'Rookie rule' introduced, preventing any newcomer to the MotoGP championship from riding for a factory team[12]
  • 2010: Kawasaki announces it's retirement due to negotiations with DORNA, stated that it will continue racing activities using mass-produced motorcycles as well as supporting general race oriented consumers.
  • 2011: MotoGP rider Marco Simoncelli is killed at Sepang.[13]
  • 2011: Suzuki suspend their MotoGP participation at the end of the season.
  • 2012: Moto3 250 cc four-stroke single-cylinder class replaces the 125cc class
  • 2012: MotoGP raises the maximum engine capacity to 1,000 cc[14] and introduces claiming rule teams.
  • 2013: knockout qualifying style is introduced.[15]
  • 2013: The 'rookie rule' introduce for the 2010 season is withdrawn.
  • 2013: Marc Márquez becomes the first rookie to win the championship in MotoGP's current guise, and the youngest ever premier class world champion.
  • 2014: Removal of the claiming rule teams and introduction of the Open Class category. Marc Márquez dominates the season by winning the first 10 races of the season.
  • 2015: Suzuki returned to MotoGP as a constructor after a four-year hiatus.
  • 2016: Michelin returns as tyre supplier after Bridgestone's withdrawal.
  • 2016: Luis Salom dies during Moto2 practice at the Catalan Grand Prix after a high-speed impact with his own stricken bike.
  • 2017: KTM joined the series with a factory-supported team for the first time.

Các tay đua[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Các tay đua hàng đầu sẽ thi đấu các chặng đua ở vòng quanh thế giới. Giải đua này được nhiều người dân Ý và Tây Ban Nha theo dõi, vì trong những năm gần đây các tay đua của 2 quốc gia này giành được nhiều chức vô địch, Tính đến năm 2017, có 26 tay đua của 8 quốc gia đã từng vô địch thể thức cao nhất là MotoGP/500cc.

Các nhà vô địch[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Chức vô địch được trao cho tay đua ghi nhiều điểm nhất trong mùa giải.

Giacomo Agostini là tay đua nhiều lần vô địch nhất trong lịch sử với 15 danh hiệu (8 ở thể thức 500 cc và 7 ở thể thức 350 cc). Trong khi đó, tay đua thống trị nhất 1 giải đua là Mike Hailwood, đã chiến thắng 10 trong tổng số 12 chặng đua (83%) ở thể thức 250 cc mùa giải 1966. Cũng phải kể đến Mick Doohan, người từng chiến thắng 12 trong 15 chặng đua (80%) ở mùa giải 500cc năm 1997. Valentino Rossi là tay đua thành công nhất ở thời điểm hiện tại, anh đã vô địch 9 lần trong đó có 7 chức vô địch thể thức MotoGP/500cc. Nhà đương kim vô địch (2017) đang là Marc Márquez.

Các chặng đua MotoGP[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Bản đồ MotoGP. Màu xanh là các nước đang tổ chức, màu đỏ là những nước từng tổ chức trong quá khứ

Mùa giải MotoGP 2017 bao gồm 18 chặng đua ở 15 quốc gia (riêng Tây Ban Nha tổ chức 4 chặng đua) 

  • , Losail, Losail International Circuit
  • , Termas de Río Hondo, Autódromo Termas de Río Hondo
  • , Elroy, Circuit of the Americas
  • , Jerez de la Frontera, Circuito de Jerez
  • , Le Mans, Circuit Bugatti
  • , Scarperia e San Piero, Mugello Circuit
  • , Montmeló, Circuit de Catalunya
  • , Assen, TT Circuit Assen
  • , Hohenstein-Ernstthal, Sachsenring
  • , Spielberg bei Knittelfeld, Red Bull Ring
  • , Brno, Masaryk Circuit
  • , Silverstone, Silverstone Circuit
  • , Misano Adriatico, Misano World Circuit Marco Simoncelli
  • , Alcañiz, Motorland Aragon
  • Flag of Japan (bordered).svg, Motegi, Twin Ring Motegi
  • , Ventnor, Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit
  • , Sepang, Sepang Circuit
  • , Cheste, Circuit Ricardo Tormo

Kỹ thuật[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The following shows the key specifications issues for each class. It was also introduced for the 2005 year, that under rule 2.10.5: 'No fuel on the motorcycle may be more than 15 °C below ambient temperature. The use of any device on the motorcycle to artificially decrease the temperature of the fuel below ambient temperature is forbidden. No motorcycle may include such a device.' This stops an artificial "boost" gained from increasing fuel density by cooling it.

Thể thức MotoGP[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Casey Stoner tại Brno-CH Séc
Valentino Rossi tại Laguna Seca

At the beginning of the new MotoGP era in 2002, 500 cc two-stroke or 990 cc four-stroke bikes were specified to race. The enormous power advantage of the twice as large displacement four-stroke engine over the half the size two-stroke meant that by the following season, no two-stroke bikes were racing. In 2007, the maximum engine capacity was reduced to 800 cc without reducing the existing weight restriction.

MotoGP-class motorcycles are not restricted to any specific engine configuration. However, the number of cylinders employed in the engine determines the motorcycle's permitted minimum weight; the weight of the extra cylinders acts as a form of handicap. This is necessary because, for a given capacity, an engine with more cylinders is capable of producing more power. If comparable bore to stroke ratios are employed, an engine with more cylinders will have a greater piston area and a shorter stroke. The increased piston area permits an increase in the total valve area, allowing more air and fuel to be drawn into the engine, and the shorter stroke permits higher revs at the same piston speed, allowing the engine to pump still more air and fuel with the potential to produce more power, but with more fuel consumption too. In 2004 motorcycles were entered with three-, four-and five-cylinder configurations. A six-cylinder engine was proposed by Blata, but it did not reach the MotoGP grids. Presently four-cylinder engines appear to offer the best compromise between weight, power, and fuel consumption as all competitors in the 2009 series use this solution in either 'V' or in-line configuration.

In 2002, the FIM became concerned at the advances in design and engineering that resulted in higher speeds around the race track; regulation changes related to weight, amount of available fuel and engine capacity were introduced. The amended rules reduced engine capacity to 800 cc from 990 cc and restricted the amount of available fuel for race distance from 26 lít (5,7 gal Anh; 6,9 gal Mỹ) in year 2004 to 21 lít (4,6 gal Anh; 5,5 gal Mỹ) in year 2007 and onwards. In addition, the minimum weight of four-cylinder bikes used by all participating teams was increased by 3 kg (6,6 lb).

The highest speed for a MotoGP motorcycle in 125 cc category is 249,76 km/h (155,19 mph)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] by Valentino Rossi in 1996 for Aprilia and the top speed in the history of MotoGP is 354,7 km/h (220,4 mph)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ], set by Michele Pirro, during the race at the 2017 Italian Grand Prix.[16]

On December 11, 2009, the Grand Prix Commission announced that the MotoGP class would switch to the 1,000 cc motor limit starting in the 2012 season. Maximum displacement was limited to 1,000 cc, maximum cylinders were limited to four, and maximum bore was capped at 81 mm (3,2 inch).[17] Carmelo Ezpeleta, the CEO of Dorna Sports, indicated that the projected changes were received by the teams favorably.[18]

From 2012, teams not entered by one of the major manufacturers could seek "claiming rule team" (CRT) status. Claiming rule team were intended to allow independent teams to be competitive at a lower cost and increase the number of entries in MotoGP. Claiming rule teams benefitted from less restrictive rules on the number of engines that could be used in a season, and with larger fuel allowances during the races. Under the claiming rule, CRTs agree to allow up to four of their engines per season to be claimed, after a race, by one of the major manufacturer teams at a cost of €20,000 each including transmission, or €15,000 each for the engine alone.[19] From the 2014 season, the CRT class was dropped in favour of an "Open Class" specification - allowing teams using the control ECU hardware and software certain benefits to increase their competitiveness.[20]

Thể thức Moto2[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Moto2 là thể thức thay thế cho thể thức 250cc truyền thống từ năm 2010. Các xe thi đấu ở thể thức này có động cơ 4 thì 600cc. Honda độc quyền cung cấp động cơ cho các đội đua Moto2. Dunlop cũng cấp lốp độc quyền còn thiết bị điện tử có giá tối đa 650 EURO cũng được quy định chặt chẽ và được đối tác độc quyền của FIM cung cấp. Phanh dĩa carbon bị cấm. Chỉ có cho phép sử dụng phanh dĩa bằng thép. Tuy nhiên, không có giới hạn số lượng khung xe.

Từ năm 2019, Triumph sẽ là nhà cung cấp động cơ độc quyền.

Thể thức Moto3[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Thể thức Moto3 thay thế thể thức 125cc từ năm 2012. Thể thức này quy định động cơ 4 thì 1 xy lanh 250cc, đường kính tối đa của xi lanh là 81mm. Tổng trọng lượng tối thiểu của cả xe và tay đua là 148 kg. Các tay đua Moto3 phải từ 28 tuổi trở xuống. Đối với các tay đua tham gia lần đầu, họ không được quá 25 tuổi.

Động cơ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tiêu chí MotoGP Moto2 Moto3
Nhà sản xuất Nhiều Honda (2010-2018)

Triumph (2019 onwards)

Quy định về xy lanh 75.5°-90° V4/I4 I4(2010-2018)

I3 (2019 onwards)

1 xy lanh
Thể tích (phân khối) 1.000 cc (61 cu in) 600 cc (37 cu in) (2010-2018)

765 cc (47 cu in) (2019 onwards)

250 cc (15 cu in)
Thì 4 thì (từ năm 2012)
Kiểu van DOHC, 4 van 1 xy lanh
Nhiên liệu Unleaded 100 octane (no control fuel) Total unleaded 98 octane (since 2016)
Dẫn nhiên liệu Fuel injection
Aspiration Natural aspiration
Công suất 260 bhp (190 kW) > 140 bhp (100 kW) > 55 bhp (41 kW)
Tỷ số công suất/khối lượng 1.51 bhp/kg ~1 bhp/kg[21] ~0.6 bhp/kg
Bôi trơn Wet sump
Số vòng tua của động cơ 17,500 - 18,000 rpm 14,000 rpm
Tốc độ tối đa 361 km/h (224 mph) 280 km/h (174 mph) 244 km/h (152 mph)
Hệ thống làm mát Single water pump
Đánh lửa NGK

Trọng lượng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Trọng lượng tối thiểu thể thức Moto GP


Năm 2002  Năm 2007 Năm 2010
2 135 kg (298 lb) 137 kg (302 lb) 135 kg (298 lb)
3 135 kg (298 lb) 140,5 kg (310 lb) 142,5 kg (314 lb)
4 145 kg (320 lb) 148 kg (326 lb) 150 kg (330 lb)
5 145 kg (320 lb) 155,5 kg (343 lb) 157,5 kg (347 lb)
6 155 kg (342 lb) 163 kg (359 lb) 165 kg (364 lb)
  • In 2005, fuel tank capacity was increased from 20 lít (4,4 gal Anh; 5,3 gal Mỹ) to 24 lít (5,3 gal Anh; 6,3 gal Mỹ)
  • In 2006, fuel tank capacity was reduced slightly from 24 litres to 22 lít (4,8 gal Anh; 5,8 gal Mỹ)
  • From 2007 onwards, and for a minimum period of five years, FIM has regulated in MotoGP class that two-stroke bikes will no longer be allowed. The maximum fuel capacity is to be 21 lít (4,6 gal Anh; 5,5 gal Mỹ).
  • From 2007 to 2011, engines were limited to 800 cc four-strokes
  • In 2012 engine displacement was increased to 1000cc[22]
  • For the 2013 season minimum weight was increased to 160 kg (350 lb)
  • For the 2015 season minimum weight was decreased to 158 kg (348 lb)[23]

Lốp[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tyre selection is critical, usually done by the individual rider based on bike 'feel' during practice, qualifying and the pre-race warm-up laps on the morning of the race, as well as the predicted weather. The typical compromise is between grip and longevity—softer compound tyres have more traction, but wear out more quickly; harder compound tyres have less traction, but are more likely to last the entire race. Conserving rubber throughout a race is a specific skill winning riders acquire. Special 'Q' or qualifying tyres of extreme softness and grip were typically used during grid-qualifying sessions until their use was discontinued at the end of the 2008 season, but they lasted typically no longer than one or two laps, though they could deliver higher qualifying speeds. In wet conditions, special tires ('wets') with full treads are used, but they suffer extreme wear if the track dries out.

In 2007 new MotoGP regulations limited the number of tyres any rider could use over the practice and qualifying period, and the race itself, to a maximum of 31 tyres (14 fronts and 17 rears) per rider. This introduced a problem of tyre choice versus weather (among other factors) that challenges riders and teams to optimize their performance on race day. This factor was greeted with varying degrees of enthusiasm by participants. Bridgestone had dominated in 2007 and Michelin riders Valentino Rossi, Nicky Hayden, Dani Pedrosa, and Colin Edwards all acknowledged shortcomings in Michelin's race tyres relative to Bridgestone. Rossi, disappointed with and critical of the performance of his Michelin tyres, switched to Bridgestones for 2008 and won the world championship in dominant fashion. Pedrosa switched to Bridgestones during the 2008 season.

In 2008, the rules were amended to allow more tyres per race weekend—18 fronts and 22 rears for a total of 40 tyres. The lower number of tyres per weekend was considered a handicap to Michelin riders. The only MotoGP team using Dunlop tyres in 2007, Yamaha Tech 3, did not use them in 2008 but switched to Michelin.

For 2009, 2010 and 2011, a 'spec' tyre supplier, Bridgestone, was appointed by the FIM (with Michelin no longer supplying any tyres to MotoGP). For the whole season Bridgestone provided four different specifications of front tyre, six of rear, and a single wet specification—with no qualifying specification. For each round Bridgestone provided only two specifications for front and rear. Tyres are assigned to riders randomly to assure impartiality.[24] Jorge Lorenzo has publicly supported the mono tyre rule.[25]

At the end of the 2015 season, Bridgestone withdrew as Official Tyre Supplier to MotoGP.[26] Following a formal tender, French tyre manufacturer Michelin became the official supplier for the 2016 season, and testing began in Aragon immediately after the end of the 2015 season.[27]

Motorcycle Cost:

MotoGP motorcycles are estimated to be worth approximately 2 million dollars (USD) although executives within MotoGP have deemed them priceless due in part that they are prototypes and cannot easily be replicated.

Hệ thống tính điểm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Hệ thống tính điểm hiện tại
Vị trí 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Điểm 25 20 16 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Truyền thông[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tìm hiểu thêm[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Maurice Büla biên tập (2001). Continental Circus 1949-2000. Jean-Claude Schertenleib. Chronosports S.A. tr. 18. ISBN 2940125767. 
  2. ^ “Pioneer gun store and cyclery has greatly increased in size”. The Bakersfield Californian (Heritage Microfilm, Inc.#NewspaperARCHIVE). 26 tháng 4 năm 1913. (cần đăng ký mua (trợ giúp)). The most notable Indian triumph of 1912 was the winning of the French classic motorcycle event, the Grand Prix.  |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. ^ “Inside MotoGP. History”. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 24 tháng 3 năm 2016. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 9 năm 2017. 
  4. ^ Noyes, Dennis (21 tháng 12 năm 2007). “MOTOGP: Dorna CEO Advocates Limits on Electronics in MotoGP”. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 6 tháng 5 năm 2008. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 3 năm 2008. 
  5. ^ “MotoGP increases engine size to 1,000 cc in 2012”. BBC Sport. 10 tháng 1 năm 2010. 
  6. ^ THE IDIOT’S GUIDE TO MOTOGP: How to increase costs and decrease speed (Part II) Moto GP News 3 January 2006.
  7. ^ “FIM announce changes to 2009 regulations”. 18 tháng 2 năm 2009. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2009. 
  8. ^ “MotoGP Milestones”. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 1 năm 2016. 
  9. ^ “FIM History Flash Back 1796-1979”. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 18 tháng 2 năm 2017. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 9 năm 2017. 
  10. ^ “Bridgestone make proposal to be single tyre supplier in 2009”. MotoGP. 4 tháng 10 năm 2008. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
  11. ^ “Michelin will not bid for the contract to be single-source supplier of tyres for the MotoGP World Championship”. Michelin. 4 tháng 10 năm 2008. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
  12. ^ “Rule changes prevent rookie factory riders.”. Truy cập ngày 26 tháng 7 năm 2017. 
  13. ^ “Simoncelli dies from injuries”. Yahoo!. 23 tháng 10 năm 2011. Truy cập ngày 23 tháng 10 năm 2011. 
  14. ^ “MotoGP changes for 2012”. MotoGP. 11 tháng 12 năm 2009. Truy cập ngày 16 tháng 3 năm 2011. 
  15. ^ “MotoGP announces knockout style qualifying”. (Crash Media Group). 14 tháng 10 năm 2012. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 10 năm 2012. 
  16. ^ “Event Best Maximum Speed” (PDF). 20 tháng 3 năm 2016. Truy cập ngày 2 tháng 6 năm 2014. 
  17. ^ “MotoGP Goes Back to 1,000 cc in 2012”. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 2014. 
  18. ^ " MOTOGP: Rossi Quickest As Sepang Test Concludes," (2010).
  19. ^ “Corrado Cecchinelli talks CRT regulations”. 3 tháng 5 năm 2011. Truy cập ngày 17 tháng 12 năm 2011. 
  20. ^ MotoGP Rules Update: 'CRT' Name Dropped, Replaced With 'Open' Motomatters, 17 October 2013 Retrieved 2014-12-17
  21. ^ Sports, Dorna. “Inside MotoGP™ · Bikes”. Truy cập ngày 2 tháng 4 năm 2016. 
  22. ^ “MotoGP Basics”. 
  23. ^ “MotoGP™ software development freeze for mid-2015”. 
  24. ^ “Bridgestone: How MotoGP Spec Tyres Will Work”. 4 tháng 2 năm 2009. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 7 tháng 2 năm 2009. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 2 năm 2009. 
  25. ^ Jorge Lorenzo satisfied with single tyre rule motorcyclenews
  26. ^ “Bridgestone to withdraw from MotoGP™ after the 2015 season”. Truy cập ngày 24 tháng 2 năm 2016. 
  27. ^ “Michelin to become MotoGP™ Official Tyre supplier”. Truy cập ngày 24 tháng 2 năm 2016. 

Đường dẫn bên ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]