Khác biệt giữa các bản “Virginia Bolten”

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== Tiểu sử ==
Virginia Bolten, the daughter of a German emigrant, was born in 1870 in Argentina, either in San Luis or San Juan. She spent her childhood in [[San Juan Province (Argentina)|San Juan, a province of Argentina]]. After reaching adulthood she worked as a shoemaker and a sugar factory worker. While working as a shoemaker she met Juan Marquez, an organiser of a shoe workers union, whom she later married.<ref name="libcom">{{cite web|url=http://libcom.org/history/bolten-virginia-1870-1960-aka-%E2%80%9Cla-luisa-michel-rosarino%E2%80%9D-louise-michel-rosario|title=Biography of Virginia Bolten|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref> Instrumental in her introduction to anarchist circles was her acquaintance with [[Pietro Gori]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Carlson|first=Marifran|title=Feminismo!: the woman's movement in Argentina from its beginnings to Eva Perón|publisher=Academy Chicago Publishers|date=1988|pages=127|isbn=978-0-89733-152-4}}</ref> After a number of years of activity in the feminist, anarchist, and workers' movements, she was deported to [[Uruguay]] under the Residence Law in 1902.<ref name="molyneux"/><ref>{{cite book|last=Molyneux|first=Maxine|others=Jaqueline Cruz (trans.)|title=Movimientos de mujeres en América Latina: estudio teórico comparado|publisher=Universitat de València|date=2003|pages=42|isbn=978-84-376-2086-2|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pMyk7mG8aMAC&pg=PA42|accessdate=2 February 2010|language=Spanish}}</ref>
 
==Các hoạt động==
In 1888 Bolten became one of the publishers of ''The Working Baker of Rosario'' ({{lang-es|El Obrero Panadero de Rosario}}), one of the first anarchist newspapers in Argentina. In 1889 she organized the seamstresses' demonstration and consequent strike in [[Rosario]], probably the first strike by female workers in Argentina.<ref name="libcom"/><ref>{{cite book|last=Moya|first=José|title=Women, gender and transnational lives: Italian workers of the world|editor=Donna R. Gabaccia, Franca Iacovetta|publisher=U of Toronto P|date=2002|pages=202|chapter=Italians in Buenos Aires's Anarchist Movement: Gender Ideology and Women's Participation, 1890-1910|isbn=978-0-8020-8462-0|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=AijCtjgmS44C&pg=PA202|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref>
 
In 1890 Virginia Bolten, Romulo Ovidi and Francisco Berri were the main organizers of the first [[May Day]] demonstrations. The other editors of ''The Working Baker of Rosario'' had an equally important role in the organization of the demonstrations.<ref name="libcom"/> On April 30, 1890 (the day before the demonstrations), she was detained and interrogated, by local police forces, for distributing leaflets outside the major factories of the area. During the May Day demonstrations she led a group of thousands of workers who were marching to [[Plaza Lopez]], the main square of [[Montevideo]], the capital city of Uruguay. Throughout the march she carried the [[Red flag (politics)|red flag]], on which was written "First Of May - Universal Fraternity" ({{lang-es|Primero de Mayo - Fraternidad Universal; Los trabajadores de Rosario cumplimos las disposiciones del Comité Obrero Internacional de París}}).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mujereshoy.com/secciones/2907.shtml|title=Anarquistas: “Ni Dios, Ni Patrón, Ni Marido”|last=Portugal|first=Ana Maria|date=8 March 2005|publisher=Mujeres Hoy|language=Spanish|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.museodelaciudad.org.ar/virginia-bolten.pdf|title=Museo de la Ciudad|language=Spanish|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref>
 
===''La Voz de la Mujer''===
Bolten is probably responsible for the publication of a newspaper called ''[[La Voz de la Mujer]]'' ({{lang-en|The Woman's Voice}}), which was published nine times in Rosario between 8 January 1896 and 1 January 1897, and was revived, briefly, in 1901. A similar paper with the same name was reportedly published later in [[Montevideo]], which suggests that Bolten may also have founded and edited it after her deportation.<ref name="molyneux">{{cite book|last=Molyneux|first=Maxine|title=Women's movements in international perspective: Latin America and beyond|publisher=Palgrave MacMillan|date=2001|pages=24|isbn=978-0-333-78677-2|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=yg9HFrOG89kC&pg=PA24}}</ref>
 
===''La Nueva Senda''===
In Uruguay, Bolten continued her activism, publishing a newspaper called ''La Nueva Senda'' ({{lang-en|The New Path}}) from 1909 to 1910.<ref>{{cite book|last=Ehrick|first=Christine|title=The shield of the weak: feminism and the State in Uruguay, 1903-1933|publisher=UNM Press|date=2005|pages=61|isbn=978-0-8263-3468-8|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=jWM6fa5MAi4C&pg=PA61|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref>
 
===Các ấn phẩm khác===
She published many articles in [[anarchist-communist]] journals and newspapers, the most notable of which were ''La Protesta'' and ''La Protesta Humana''.
 
==Di sản==
 
===Phim===
In 2007 the government of the [[San Luis Province]] in Argentina decided to fund a film honoring Virginia Bolten.<ref name="pagina"/> The film focuses mainly on Bolten's life, [[anarchist feminism]] and the social conditions, which led to the publication of ''La Voz de la Mujer''. It is titled ''No god, No master, no husband'' ({{lang-es|Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido}}) after one of the newspaper's mottos<ref name="pagina">{{cite web|url=http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/suplementos/rosario/9-10516-2007-10-03.html|title=Film Adaptation of Virginia Bolten's activities|date=October 3, 2007|publisher=Pagina 12|language=Spanish|accessdate=2 February 2010|location=Argentina}}</ref> and Virginia Bolten is played by [[Julieta Díaz]]. The film, which will be released on April 29, 2010, in Argentina, was directed by the [[Spanish people|Spanish]] director [[Laura Mañá]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1563675/|title=Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido|accessdate=2 February 2010}}</ref>
 
== Chú thích ==
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