Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8

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[[File:|70px|alt=]]
Interstate 8 marker

Interstate 8
Bản mẫu:Maplink
I-8 được đánh dấu màu đỏ
Route information
Length 350,34 mi (563,82 km)
171,98 dặm (276,77 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] tại California[1]
178,36 dặm (287,04 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] tại Arizona[2]
Existed 1964 – present
Major junctions
Tây end Sunset Cliffs Boulevard / Nimitz Boulevard tại San Diego, CA
 
  • Invalid type: I tại San Diego, CA
  • Invalid type: I tại San Diego, CA
  • Invalid type: I / Invalid type: SR tại San Diego, CA
  • Invalid type: SR tại El Centro, CA
  • Invalid type: US tại Yuma, AZ
  • Invalid type: SR tại Gila Bend, AZ
Đông end Invalid type: I tại Casa Grande, AZ
Location
States California, Arizona
Counties CA: San Diego, Imperial
AZ: Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal
Highway system
Bản mẫu:Ca browse
Bản mẫu:Az browse


Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 (tiếng Anh: Interstate 8 hay viết tắc là I-8) là một xa lộ liên tiểu bang tại tây nam Hoa Kỳ. Nó chạy từ rìa phía nam Vịnh Mission tại Đại lộ Sunset Cliffs trong thành phố San Diego, California, gần như sát Thái Bình Dương đến nơi giao cắt với Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 10, ngay đông nam thành phố Casa Grande, Arizona. Tại California, đường cao tốc đi qua vùng đô thị San Diego theo Ocean Beach FreewayMission Valley Freeway trước khi qua dãy núi Cuyamaca rồi đi qua thung lũng Imperial, đi qua cả El Centro. Sau khi qua sông Colorado vào bang Arizona, I-8 đi tiếp vào Yuma qua sa mạc Sonora tới Casa Grande, giữa hai thành phố PhoenixTucson.

Đoạn đường đầu tiên qua dãy núi Cuyamaca được quyết định vào 1912, and a plank road served as the first road across the Imperial Valley to Yuma; east of there, the Gila Trail continued east to Gila Bend. These were later replaced by U.S. Route 80 (US 80) across California and part of Arizona, and Arizona State Route 84 (SR 84) between Gila Bend and Casa Grande. The US 80 freeway through San Diego was largely complete by the time it was renumbered as I-8 in the 1964 state highway renumbering; east of San Diego, the US 80 roadway was slowly replaced by I-8 as construction progressed in the Imperial Valley. The Arizona portion of the road was built starting in the 1960s. Several controversies erupted during the construction process; questionable labor practices in Imperial County led to the federal conviction of mobster Jimmy Fratianno, and a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee found that the Arizona government had mismanaged financial resources.

Con đường này được hoàn thành vào năm 1975 tại bang California và năm 1977 tại bang Arizona, tuy nhiên cây cầu giao cắt giữa hai bang không được hoàn thành đến năm 1978.

Mô tả xa lộ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 trong thành phố San Diego.

I-8 là một phần của hệ thống đường của Mỹ,[3][4] một hệ thống đường that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[5] The freeway from the eastern junction with California State Route 98 (SR 98) to the eastern end is designated as part of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail auto tour route, promoted by the National Park Service.[6]

San Diego đến ranh giới Arizona[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 bắt đầu từ điểm giao cắt của Đại lộ Sunset Cliffs và Đại lộ Nimitz. Trong vài dặm đầu tiên, nó chạy song song với Đê Sông San Diego về hướng đông. Gần Old Town, I-8 giao cắt với I-5 cũng như với cựu Xa lộ Tiểu bang 209.[7] I-8 tiếp tục đi hướng đông, cắt đôi khu vực có tên là "Hotel Circle" với rất nhiều khách sạn. Khi I-8 vào Thung lũng Mission, nó có các điểm giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 163, Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 805 (Nút giao thông lập thể Jack Schrade), và Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 15 và tiếp nối là Xa lộ Tiểu bang 15. Tại La Mesa, I-8 có nút giao thông lập thể với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 125. I-8 tiếp tục đi vào El Cajon nơi nó giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 67 trước khi nó chạy lên các ngọn núi và Rừng Quốc gia Cleveland, đi qua các thị trấn như AlpinePine Valley, reaching high points at Laguna Summit, Crestwood Summit, and Tecate Divide,[8] crossing the Pine Valley Creek Bridge and passing near the Viejas Casino. Một cửa khẩu biên giới được xây dựng vào năm 1995 gần Alpine, cho chiều phía tây của I-8;[9] however, this resulted in smugglers driving the wrong way on I-8 at high speeds in order to avoid the checkpoint, causing several crashes, even after concrete barriers were installed.[10][11] I-8 giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 79 trong rừng quốc gia trước khi chạy xuống vào trong Thung lũng Imperial và đi qua hai khu dành riêng cho người bản thổ Mỹ là La Posta và Campo. Tại nơi ấn định cho điều tra dân số Boulevard, I-8 giao cắt với điểm phía đông của Xa lộ Tiểu bang 94.[12][13]

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 chạy giữa ranh giới hai quận San Diego và Imperial khoảng vài dặm trước khi quay sang hướng đông. Tại đoạn đường dốc Núi Springs/In Ko Pah, I-8 chạy xuống hai hẻm núi riêng biệt—hẻm núi Devils cho chiều hướng tây và In-Ko-Pah Gorge cho chiều hướng đông— khi nó hạ thấp xuống 4.000 foot (1.200 m) trong một đoạn đường dài 11 dặm (18 km).[8] Đây là một trong những đoạn đường có dải đất phân cách trung tâm rộng nhất trong Hệ thống Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang, dải đất phân cách trung tâm ở đây rộng trên 1,5 dặm (2,4 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ].[13][14] This portion of the road is known for high winds through the canyons that have made driving difficult, sometimes resulting in closure of the freeway;[15] in 1966, the California Highway Patrol estimated that winds blew at speeds of up to 100 dặm Anh một giờ (160 km/h).[16] Đoạn đường vào Thung lũng Imperial, ở đó I-8 giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 98, một xa lộ dẫn đến Calexico, and passes near the Desert View Tower. Lúc đó, I-8 đi qua Coyote Wells trước khi vào thành phố El Centro khoảng vài dặm sau đó.[13][14]

Tại El Centro, I-8 giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 86Xa lộ Tiểu bang 111, cả hai đều là xa lộ nam-bắc nối đến Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 10 trong Thung lũng Coachella trước khi Xa lộ Tiểu bang 115Xa lộ Tiểu bang 98 nhập với I-8 tại phía đông El Centro. I-8 cũng có độ cao trên đất liền thấp nhất so với bất cứ xa lộ liên tiểu bang nào với 52 foot (16 m) dưới mực nước biển gần thành phố El Centro, California.[17] Xa lộ cao tốc sau đó đi qua Khu giải trí Imperial Sand Dunes và giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang 186 dẫn đến México.[13][14] I-8 đi theo kênh đào All-American khoảng 55 dặm (89 km).[18] Tại các điểm nằm trong Quận Imperial, biên giới nằm cách phía nam của I-8 ít hơn 0,5 dặm (0,80 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ]. Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 sau đó đi qua Felicity, CaliforniaWinterhaven trước khi qua Sông Colorado trên một chiếc cầu vào thành phố Yuma, Arizona.[13][14]

I-8 là một phần của Hệ thống Xa lộ Cao tốc California[19] và đủ chuẩn nằm trong Hệ thống Xa lộ Cảnh quang Tiểu bang California,[20] tuy nó không phải là một xa lộ cảnh quang tiểu bang chính thức.[21] Nó chính thức được biết như là Xa lộ Hữu nghị Biên giới từ thành phố San Diego đến ranh giới tiểu bang Arizona. Nó cũng được cắm biển là Xa lộ cao tốc Ocean Beach ở phía tây Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 5 và là Xa lộ Kumeyaay (theo tên bộ lạc bản thổ Mỹ địa phương) cho toàn đoạn nằm trong Quận San Diego.[22][23] Giữa Old Town và El Cajon, I-8 được gọi Mission Valley Freeway.[14] Vào 2014, I-8 có mức lưu lượng giao thông hàng ngày (AADT) là 11,800 lượt xe giữa phố Bonds Corner và SR 115, và cũng giữa SR 98 và Imperial Highway, và 239,000 lượt xe giữa I-805 and I-15, là AADT lớn nhất trên các đường cao tốc California.[24]

Yuma đến Casa Grande[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

I-8 vào tiểu bang Arizona bằng cầu Sông Colorado ở Yuma. Ban đầu nó đi về hướng nam qua thành phố Yuma cho đến nút giao thông lập thể với Quốc lộ Hoa Kỳ 95 là nơi xa lộ cao tốc bắt đầu quay sang hướng đông. I-8 đi theo sát con đường cũ của Quốc lộ Hoa Kỳ 80 và tại một vài nơi, con đường cũ của Quốc lộ 80 được nâng cấp và trở thành I-80. Phía tây Wellton, xa lộ bẻ cong về hướng bắc và phần lớn đi theo hướng đông bắc. Qua đoạn này của tiểu bang Arizona, I-8 đi qua rìa phía bắc của Khu tập ném bom Barry M. Goldwater và đến phía nam của Khu huấn luyện Yuma của Lục quân Hoa Kỳ. Xa lộ tiếp tục đi theo hướng đông bắc cho đến khi nó tới Gila Bend, Arizona là nơi nó giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang Arizona 85 dẫn đến thành phố Phoenix về phía bắc.[2][25]

Sau khi rời Gila Bend, I-8 chạy theo hướng đông nam khi nó đi qua Tượng đài Quốc gia Hoang mạc Sonoran. Sau khi ra khỏi khu tượng đài, xa lộ tiếp tục bằng hướng đông để đến một nơi giao cắt với Xa lộ Tiểu bang Arizona 84. Xa lộ này sẽ chạy song song với I-8 đến phía bắc và đi qua Casa Grande trong khi đó I-8 sẽ đi ngang phía nam thành phố này. I-8 đến điểm đầu phía đông của nó tại nút giao thông lập thể với Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 10. I-10 tiếp tục đi đến thành phố Tucson về hướng Nam và Phoenix về hướng Bắc.[2][25]

The combination of SR 85 between I-10 and I-8 as well as I-8 between SR 85 and I-10 in Casa Grande has been promoted as a bypass of the Phoenix area for long-distance travelers on I-10.[26] In 2014, I-8 had an AADT of 5,200 vehicles between Butterfield Trail and Freeman Road, and 44,400 vehicles between SR 280 and Araby Road east of Yuma, the latter of which was the highest AADT for the highway in Arizona.[27] In the early 2010s, I-8 from Casa Grande to Gila Bend was sometimes used for smuggling both drugs and humans.[28]

Lịch sử[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The I-8 designation was accepted as a chargeable Interstate by the American Association of State Highway Officials in 1957,[29] và được thêm vào hệ thống các xa lộ vào 1964 bởi California State Legislature; thiết kế của Quốc lộ Hoa kỳ 80 bị loại vào lúc đó.[30][31]

Vùng đô thị San Diego[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The freeway that would become I-8 was constructed in the mid-20th century through the San Diego area. Phần phía tây của I-5 trước đây là một phần của SR 109, và được thêm vào I-8 in 1972. In later years, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) made efforts to widen the freeway as congestion increased.

Công trường xây dựng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Much of Alvarado Canyon Road from San Diego to La Mesa was originally built between 1947 and 1950, a bypass of the old US 80 routing along El Cajon Boulevard and La Mesa Boulevard.[32] Work began to convert the original US 80 divided highway into a freeway in 1960,[33] and the freeway was complete west of El Cajon by April 1962.[34] Priority was given to planning US 80 in 1962 by the California Chamber of Commerce.[35] In 1964, I-8 was officially designated by the California State Legislature, and the US 80 designation was removed.[30][31] By 1965, I-8 from Fairmount Avenue to El Cajon Boulevard was one of the first freeway stretches in the county to have a center barrier installed in the median.[36]

The Ocean Beach Freeway section west of I-5 was authorized as Route 286 in 1959.[37] In 1962, four alternate routes were proposed for this part of the freeway, and for Rosecrans Street.[38] Route 286 was renumbered to SR 109 in the 1964 renumbering.[31] Plans for the Old Town interchange between I-5 (formerly US 101), I-8 (formerly US 80), SR 209 (Rosecrans Street), and SR 109 date from 1962, although several concerns had to be taken into account, including the preservation of historical Old Town and keeping traffic through the area moving during construction. The goal was to begin the process in 1966, and complete the interchange in 1969.[39][40] There were concerns about a $3 million shortfall in funding (about $17 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] during May 1966, which caused the San Diego Chamber of Commerce Highway Committee to recommend the completion of SR 109 as a project.[42] This was projected to be the final highway project before I-5 was completed in San Diego County.[43]

The building phase started on September 22, 1966, on the interchange that was to replace the intersection of Pacific Highway and Rosecrans Street. The cost of the interchange was projected to be $10.86 million[44] (about $61 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] SR 109 was planned to follow Camino del Rio up to the Frontier traffic circle, where the city of San Diego would resume construction; both SR 109 and SR 209 were to be built in the future.[45] The eight-lane freeway was projected to relieve traffic in the Frontier Street area coming from the San Diego Sports Arena. Bidding for the SR 109 contract was to begin in 1968, after the City Council endorsed the route in December 1967. Completion of both the interchange and SR 109 was planned for early 1969.[46] An interchange was planned at Midway Drive, and the western end of the freeway was to be at Sunset Cliffs and Nimitz boulevards.[47] The cost of the SR 109 project was estimated to be $2.3 million[48] (about $12 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41]

The ramp from south I-5 to Camino del Rio opened in February 1968,[46] and a second ramp from southbound I-5 to eastbound I-8 opened in August 1968, with the remainder of the project to be completed in summer 1969.[49] The groundbreaking for the Ocean Beach Freeway took place on September 23, 1968, with the estimated completion to take place within 15 months.[48] However, rain in February 1969 delayed many construction projects across the county, including the SR 109 extension.[50] The entire project was completed in September, with the road scheduled to open in October.[51] The routing of SR 109 was officially added to I-8 in 1972.[52]

Mở rộng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Even before the freeway was complete in California, bidding began in 1964 on widening I-8 from six to eight lanes between near Fairmount Avenue and Spring Street, in San Diego and La Mesa.[53] Three years later, a contract was granted for the widening of the Fairmount Avenue to Ward Road stretch, adding two lanes to the freeway.[54] In 1974, the San Diego City Council reached an agreement with state officials to improve I-8 from east of Pacific Highway to Texas Street, over the objections of Councilman Floyd Morrow, who objected to solving traffic issues by continuing to expand freeways. The cost was estimated to be $8 million[55] (about $31 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41]

The La Mesa City Council asked the state to modify the interchange with SR 125 in 1974; the original interchange did not allow for access to SR 125 from I-8 east or to I-8 west from SR 125.[56] Widening of the portion from SR 125 to El Cajon Boulevard to five lanes in each direction was under way in October.[57] By 1981, the environmental impact report had been completed, and the $50 million (about $115 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] project to add ramps and widen I-8 was awaiting clearance from the Federal Highway Administration.[58] Additional ramps to SR 67 were nearing completion in May 1985,[59] and were completed to I-15 north in October.[60] In 1986, the project revamping the SR 125 interchange was under way, at a cost of $80 million (about $153 triệu in 2016 dollars);[41] it would add two more lanes to I-8 from Jackson Drive to Fuerte Drive, and allow for SR 125 to be extended north past I-8.[61]

By 1977, traffic had reached 172,300 vehicles a day, which had increased by nearly 10 percent over the previous year. It was hoped that the construction of SR 52 would help to reduce the congestion.[62] A revised Mission Gorge Road eastbound exit opened in 1979, merging with traffic from I-15.[63] Traffic reached 212,000 vehicles a day by February 1981, and Caltrans declared I-8 east of I-805 the busiest highway in the region.[64] In 1987, Caltrans determined that I-8 west between College Avenue and Waring Road had the highest ratio of cars to number of lanes worldwide, at 2400 cars per hour.[65] Plans to add another lane to I-8 west from College Avenue to I-15 began in March 1992.[66]

Caltrans proposed the installation of a metered traffic signal on I-8 west in Lakeside during 1987, in order to improve traffic flow in the mornings by inserting a short delay before entering San Diego should the rate exceed 2,000 vehicles per hour.[67] However, the state put its plans on hold shortly thereafter, following several concerns from the public, and from state senator Jim Ellis.[68]

Dãy núi Cuyamaca[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Đường cũ[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

A section of old US 80 (Wildwood Glen Lane) now closed to vehicular traffic west of Descanso Junction

A stagecoach road existed into the 19th century that passed through the mountains east of San Diego.[15] Before the freeway was constructed, the automobile road through the mountains east of San Diego was narrow and wound through the mountains; it was officially dedicated in 1912.[69][70] This trip was known to take up to four hours, and frequently resulted in the radiator boiling over, flat tires, or broken fan belts; inclement weather would result in cars becoming mired in the mud. The road was paved in 1926, and was open by 1927; remnants of this road were still present in the late 20th century. Another road was built in the early 1930s, to remove curves and widen the lanes.[15] This was a two-lane road that still had many switchbacks, with one popularly known as "Dead Man's Curve".[71] Construction of I-8 took place atop much of the roadbed of the highway from the early 1930s.[15] The delay in extending a road to San Diego caused increased development in Los Angeles and resulted in that city becoming the trade and population center of Southern California, according to the San Diego Union.[72]

Kế hoạch và xây dựng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Completion of the freeway was the second highest priority according to the Highway Development Association in May 1963, after the I-5 freeway.[73] Bidding began on the portion from Broadway in El Cajon to Harritt Road in September 1963. This section of the freeway was to parallel US 80 to the south up to Lakeview Road, and then to the north.[74] This portion of the freeway was scheduled to be complete by May 1965.[75] By January 1965, I-8 had been completed from I-5 east to an interchange with Lake Jennings Park Road,[76] just south of the latter's intersection with the southern terminus of Harritt Road.[12] At a cost of $3.44 million (about $21 triệu in 2016 dollars),[41] the project reduced the grade and curves at what was known as "Tunnel Hill" that hindered the flow of traffic.[77] The part of the freeway from west of Harritt Road to west of Alpine was up for bidding in October 1964,[78] and the Highway Commission set aside $2.1 million (about $13 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] for this 1,6 dặm-long (2,6 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] stretch in February 1965.[79] A contract for $1.42 million (about $8 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] was issued in August 1965.[80] The entire sáu dặm (9,7 km) stretch from Lake Jennings Road to Harbinson Canyon Road was under construction by September 1965 and was scheduled to be complete by the next year.[81]

In the Mountain Springs pass between San Diego and Imperial counties, the eastbound lanes traverse the pass on the former roadbed of US 80 through In-Ko-Pah Gorge near Myers Creek. The westbound lanes were placed on a different routing through Devil's Canyon that had been constructed by November 1963. A contract for paving the 9,7 dặm (15,6 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] from the San Diego–Imperial county line to SR 98, including the eastbound lanes, was given to the Isbell Construction Company for $3.69 million (about $23 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] in May 1963. This portion was completed in May 1965 "through some of the most rugged, hottest sections of San Diego and Imperial counties," according to The San Diego Union. Construction ran into difficulties following concerns regarding potential landslides. The westbound lanes were built first, and temporarily contained both directions of traffic while the old highway was converted into the eastbound lanes.[82][83] The Los Angeles Times described the stretch east of Mountain Springs as follows: "Through it the freeway engineers have hacked two separate roadways night even in sight of each other, but so overpowering in the sheer magnitude of the cuts through the mountains that it is almost impossible to believe human beings could have so overpowered hostile nature ..."[84] Access to the site for construction workers was difficult, and many slopes had to be stabilized. Temperatures reached 120 °F (49 °C) in the summer and 4 °F (−16 °C) in winter, with winds reaching up to 80 dặm Anh một giờ (130 km/h).[85] While using nuclear explosions to conduct blasting operations in the Laguna Mountains was considered as a possibility, the proposal was not considered to be practical at the time.[86] Two cables and a hook were used to move girders into place; this was the first use of a cable in Southern California road construction.[87]

The portion from Boulevard to near the Imperial County line was included in the California Highway Commission budget for 1965–1966.[88] A 6,7 dặm (10,8 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] extension from Mountain Springs west to what was then known as Road J-35 was given $3.3 million (about $20 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] in funding by the Highway Commission in May 1965.[89] The 10 dặm (16 km) section in between this one and the Mountain Springs pass section was in planning by that September, and was scheduled to begin the building phase shortly thereafter, with the section extending west of Boulevard to follow.[90] That section, from Crestwood to Boulevard, was to begin construction soon after the $3 million (about $17 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] contract was given out in January 1966.[91] The coming of the freeway from both west and east of Jacumba was projected to be a significant event in the history of the town.[84] Cafes and gas stations went out of business once the freeway bypassed the town; however, many retirees relocated into the town since the high traffic levels were gone.[72] The labeling of the town Boulevard as Manzanita on I-8 signs raised controversy and forced the Division of Highways to obscure the name on the signs until the issue was resolved.[92]

Construction continued with the issuing of a $6.55 million contract (about $37 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] to widen a 5,7 dặm (9,2 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] section of I-8 through Alpine, from Harbinson Canyon to east of West Victoria Drive, and to begin construction in April or May 1967, to be completed in 1969. This would leave only a 30 dặm (48 km) stretch of I-8 that was not at freeway standards.[93][94] As the process continued, concerns about increased smog from the additional traffic were raised in October 1967.[95] A 3,7 dặm (6,0 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] section to the east of Alpine was scheduled to have bidding opened in November of that year, and was to be finished in 1968; this would produce a continuous freeway from San Diego to the eastern terminus of this route.[96] Both of these projects were underway by May 1968.[97] An additional contract was given out for $7.8 million (about $42 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] in August to continue the freeway east from Alpine Street to Japatul Valley Road; this would bring the freeway near Descanso Junction.[98] Roughly 5.5 million cubic yards of dirt and rock were to be generated by all three of these construction projects, since half of a mountain would have to be removed with a million pounds of dynamite. The third project was built near the site of an abandoned attempt to build a tunnel for the old highway after World War II, which proved to be too expensive.[99]

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8 tại Alpine

By mid-February 1969, one segment of the freeway running through Alpine was nearing completion and was scheduled to open on February 21; another section was scheduled to open in April. However, although dirt and rocks were transported on a conveyor belt across US 80 to become part of an embankment for the Sweetwater River Bridge, the grading of the mountain near Viejas Grade and the Sweetwater River had not been completed on the final link. The historic Ellis Grade radiator stop was to be removed and replaced with one at Vista Point.[100] On April 19, 1969, the part 2,5 dặm (4,0 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] east of Alpine opened to traffic.[101] All of the Alpine part of I-8 opened on May 22, 1969, after a ribbon-cutting ceremony; yet the Viejas Grade segment was now projected to be completed by 1972.[102] The bridge over the Sweetwater River was under construction by 1970,[103] and the entire segment cost $22.1 million[104] (about $108 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] By May, this segment was estimated to be completed in the later part of that year.[69] The leveling of the grade resulted in the second highest fill in the state at 360 foot (110 m).[105]

Hoàn thành cao tốc[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The final portion of I-8 in California, between Japatul Valley Road and west of Boulevard, was prioritized in the 1969–1970 state budget.[106] Due to financial concerns, it was announced in September 1968 that the target date for completing the Interstate Highway System would be extended until 1974, from 1972. The missing portion of I-8 was expected to cost $45 million and be constructed in three parts, with one part being started each year.[107] The segments between Japatul Valley Road and west of Laguna Junction, and from La Posta Road to west of Boulevard, were delayed for an entire year at the end of 1969 due to a nationwide effort to fight inflation by reducing spending.[108] A 6,6 dặm (10,6 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] segment from Buckman Springs to Crestwood received funding in May 1970, which would leave only an 8 dặm (13 km) stretch of the freeway uncompleted when built.[104] The drive time from San Diego to El Centro had been reduced to two hours, according to the California Division of Highways.[69] By August 1970, the remainder of the freeway had been funded, with the part from Japatul Valley Road to Laguna Junction costing $22 million (about $108 triệu in 2016 dollars),[41] and the Laguna Junction to Crestwood portion costing $15 million[109] (about $73 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41]

In May 1971, El Centro Mayor Alex Gay requested that passing lanes be added to the remaining two-lane part of I-8 in between El Centro and San Diego due to the frequent traffic jams in between Japatul Valley and Crestwood. At this time, this was the only missing link through the mountains.[110] Bidding took place on the $16.5 million (about $77 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] La Posta Road to Crestwood Road and the Japatul Valley Road to Sunrise Highway portions in November 1971.[111] As part of this series of projects, the highest concrete bridge in the state at the time was to be built at 430 foot (130 m) over Pine Valley Creek on the segment between Japatul Valley Road and Sunrise Highway. The contract came in at $22.6 million (about $101 triệu in 2016 dollars),[41] over $5 million (about $22 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] beyond budget due to the difficulty of the bridge construction. All three of the projects to complete I-8 were projected to be complete by mid-1974.[112] However, in March 1972, it was announced that the La Posta Road portion of the project would be delayed due to budget troubles.[113]

By the beginning of 1974, the new projected completion date for I-8 was mid-1975, with 22 dặm (35 km) of two-lane highway remaining.[114] The Pine Valley Creek bridge and the segment extending from Japatul Valley Road to Pine Valley was dedicated on November 24, 1974, and was scheduled to open on November 26; this left 8 dặm (13 km) of freeway to be constructed.[115] The final stretch of I-8 in California, from Sunrise Highway to La Posta Road, was completed in May 1975.[72]

The Buckman Springs rest area opened in January 1979 in eastern San Diego County.[116] In 1987, the first 65 dặm Anh một giờ (105 km/h) speed limit sign was posted east of El Cajon, the first one in the state; the speed limit on all I-8 east of El Cajon, except for the Mountain Springs Grade portion, was raised similarly.[117]

Thung lũng Imperial[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xây dựng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xa lộ liên tiểu bang 8 tại Thung lũng Imperial, 1972

The highway through Imperial Valley was originally a plank road made of pieces of wood that were tied together.[70] The Ocean-to-Ocean Bridge across the Colorado River was open in 1915.[118] Following this, US 80 was built through the valley as the main east–west route.[119] Plans for a new freeway across the southernmost reaches of California date from before 1950.[120] The bridge over the Colorado River was replaced in 1956, at a cost of $1.2 million, and was in use until 1978, when the I-8 bridge was built.[121] In 1957, the City of El Centro expressed a desire for the new freeway to replace US 80 to be routed along the southern limits of the city. Caltrans engineer Jacob Dekema stated at the time that the four-lane freeway would not be constructed on the US 80 routing due to possible expansion of the Naval Air Facility El Centro.[122]

In October 1964, the portion of I-8 between Imperial Avenue in El Centro to SR 111 appeared in the state budget.[123] By December, a route for the part of I-8 just west of the Colorado River was being examined by the California Highway Commission.[124] Construction was underway on the stretch from Seeley to SR 111 by June 1966, and the entire portion through the county was planned for completion by 1968.[125] This 12,2 dặm (19,6 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] portion, extending west to Drew Road, was planned for completion by early 1967, at a cost of $200 million (about $1.13 tỷ in 2016 dollars);[41] however, by then the date for completion of the freeway had slipped to 1972.[120] The state ordered the building of the portion from west of Coyote Wells to just east of Drew Road in September 1967.[126] The next year, Dekema indicated that the goal was to have I-8 completed by 1973, citing a deadline in order to have the federal government pay for up to ninety percent of the costs; the other freeways in the region were to be delayed because of this.[127]

In early 1970, the portion of the freeway from west of Ogilby Road to east of Algodones Road was under construction, and projections were to have this portion completed by later that year. This $5.2 million (about $25 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] project also included resurfacing the freeway that had already been built through the Colorado Desert Sandhills;[69] this part of the freeway had been built between 1961 and 1965.[128][129] By this time, it was estimated that the drive from San Diego to El Centro now took two hours, as opposed to the three-and-a-half hours required two decades earlier, and the two days required in the pioneer era.[69] This part of the freeway was opened in July 1970.[130][131] As the freeway was constructed through the valley, it caused a break in many north–south roads. These breaks were located where access to the part of the road on the other side of the freeway was cut off. Plans were put in place to build frontage roads to improve access through the region.[132]

The 16 dặm (26 km) portion of I-8 bypassing Holtville began construction in December 1969, and was nearing completion in May 1971, to result in a continuous freeway that connected two existing segments from Crestwood in San Diego County to just west of Winterhaven. It was estimated that the bypass would save travelers 20 minutes of travel time through the Imperial Valley. The cost of this project was $11.2 million (about $58 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] However, Holtville residents raised concerns about SR 115 providing the only access to the eastern part of the city,[133] notably the narrow and curved portion leading from the freeway into town. Work on the Holtville portion began at 3:30 a.m. daily during the summer in order to avoid the desert heat. In addition to this, construction of the Highline Canal overpass involved a 120 foot (37 m) steel span that was prefabricated and made of girders that were hoisted into position by barges. The Matich Construction Company attempted to set the world record for laying the most concrete in a day, aided by the level terrain, but failed to do so after the concrete mixer malfunctioned.[134] That same year, bids for an Arizona plant inspection station near Winterhaven, next to the California agricultural inspection station, were submitted.[135]

The last 6,5 dặm (10,5 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] part of the California portion, from near Algodones Road to west of the Arizona state line, was to enter the bidding phase in early 1972.[136] I-8 was scheduled to be completed in the summer of 1975 between San Diego and Yuma, although there would be a break in the freeway around Yuma;[70] this occurred by October 1975.[121] At the time the California portion was completed, it was the preferred route to Phoenix from some areas of Los Angeles, since I-10 had not been completed.[70]

The missing portion of the highway was the new bridge over the Colorado River, which was built at a cost of $7.4 million[121] (about $26 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] In June 1975, there were concerns regarding the state delaying new construction projects due to financial concerns, and the effects this would have on the bridge.[137] The bid for the project was awarded to Novo-Rados Construction in October 1975, as one of the final projects before the construction freeze.[138] The new bridge, which replaced the old US 80 bridge, was dedicated on August 18, 1978; this completed I-8 from San Diego to Casa Grande. The Arizona Department of Transportation and the City of Yuma assisted in the planning process. By the time the California portion of the freeway was complete, the average cost was $1 million per mile[121] (about $3 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] The bridge opened on September 20, 1978. The State of California was responsible for the bridge erection, even though the State of Arizona owned half of the bridge.[139]

Fratianno allegations[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Jimmy Fratianno was associated with Frank Bompensiero, the San Diego mafia leader, in a criminal lawsuit involving the Fratianno Trucking Company and the Miles and Sons Trucking Company in 1966;[140] he was known to law enforcement as "the Mafia's West Coast executioner," with up to 16 deaths for which he was potentially responsible. Both companies were awarded the contracts to transport dirt during the construction of I-8 in El Centro. Drivers were coerced to agree to buy the trucks, although the Fratianno Company still retained the ownership; they also had portions of their wages withheld from them. Following this, the drivers were loaned money from Leo Moceri, another mafia leader.[140][141] An investigation in early 1966 after complaints from the drivers led to state charges against the two firms as well as five people in August.[142] There were concerns that John Erreca, the state director of public works, had a conflict of interest with Fratianno and did not enforce the law; however, both Transportation Administrator Robert Bradford (upon a request for investigation from then Governor Pat Brown) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation found that there was no conflict of interest.[143][144]

The truck drivers were given $36,000 (about $203 nghìn in 2016 dollars)[41] in back pay from the state government.[145] Fratianno and Bompensiero were charged with fraud, as well as state labor and public utility code violations. While charges were dropped against Bompensiero, Fratianno was found guilty.[140][141] The Imperial County Board of Supervisors estimated that $25,000 (about $618 nghìn in 2016 dollars)[41] in damage to county roads took place due to overloaded trucks.[146] The federal government fined him $10,000 (about $54 nghìn in 2016 dollars),[41] which he never paid, and placed him on probation for three years; he was imprisoned when he did not pay, but was released in September 1969. His ex-wife, Jewell, as well as the company, were fined $4,014 (about $19.000 in 2016 dollars)[41] individually for their responsibility in the matter.[147] For the state charges, he was sentenced in 1969 to one to three years in prison, after pleading guilty to the charges.[148] He was incarcerated in Chico State Prison following a parole violation until 1973.[140]

Phá huỷ bởi bão[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Following Tropical Storm Kathleen in September 1976, a flood eroded 400 pieces of the roadway from westbound I-8 near Ocotillo, resulting in the construction of a detour. The freeway reopened to traffic in February 1978 after the damage was repaired and a new bridge was built, at a cost of $1 million[149][150] (about $3 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] But in 1982, the freeway was closed again near Ocotillo due to flooding following another storm.[151]

Arizona[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 10 gặp đầu đông của Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang 8

Between Yuma and Gila Bend, I-8 runs alongside the routes of both the Gila Trail and the Butterfield Overland Mail Company line. The latter was a stagecoach line that went between Tipton, Missouri, and San Francisco, with several stations in between, and was used to transport passengers across the country at năm dặm Anh một giờ (8,0 km/h) between 1858 and 1861.[152] In later years, the Southern Pacific Railroad was constructed, paralleling the Gila River east of Fortuna;[153] by 1877, the tracks were complete to Yuma. Work continued the next year, and by 1880 the tracks were extended to Tucson from Yuma.[154]

This portion of the route of I-8 was originally part of the proposed state system of highways in 1921.[155] By 1926, this section became part of the cross-country highway US 80. The route was not paved at this time, but was a gravel road along the entire corridor.[156] By 1928, the portion of I-8 between Gila Bend and Casa Grande was designated as SR 84.[157] A small portion of the highway was paved near Yuma and SR 84 was under construction by the next year.[158] SR 84 was completed by 1930, but not paved, and the segment of US 80 between Aztec and Sentinel had been paved.[159]

Paving of SR 84 had commenced by 1934, with the portion of the highway in Maricopa County being paved.[160] A group of San Diego citizens raised concerns about the road from Yuma to Gila Bend not being paved in 1934, due to the impact that this would have on tourism in San Diego, and made a request to the federal government to have it paved.[161] The entire future corridor of I-8 had been paved from Yuma to Casa Grande by 1935.[162] Drivers were told to bring spare fan belts, radiator hoses, and additional drinking water for the journey traversing the desert.[163] A "Shortcuts Association" began in 1952 to promote SR 84 as a route to bypass Phoenix on the way to San Diego.[164]

With the coming of the Interstate Highways, the corridor was to be upgraded to Interstate standards. In late 1958, a group of motel owners whose properties were located on SR 84 strongly objected to any routing of I-8 that would not go through the city of Casa Grande.[165] Motel owners in Yuma proposed their own alternative in 1961 to the four routings of I-8 through the city that had been proposed, raising concerns about losing revenue from tourism.[166] In January 1962, the alternatives were narrowed down to two, with one of them being the route supported by the motel owners. However, nearby school officials expressed concerns regarding that route, because 1200 students would no longer be able to walk to school if the freeway was constructed along that route.[167] Later that year, a new route had been proposed, along the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks and the Colorado River.[168] By 1963, work was in progress, with portions of the highway between Mohawk and Gila Bend, and between Gila Bend and near Stanfield upgraded.[169] Other merchants objected to the routing, and met with the Yuma County Board of Supervisors to raise their concerns following the final approval of the route in 1964.[170] A new park was to be built east of the Colorado River crossing, just opposite downtown; city officials hoped that this would give an improved look to the town as drivers first arrived.[171]

Nevertheless, there was controversy over the work in Arizona as well. In 1964, a U.S. House of Representatives investigation discovered that poor management and lack of efficiency were prevalent in four of the projects constructing the I-8 freeway. The Arizona Highway Department was specifically cited in the report for not taking into account protecting government interests when selecting labor for the projects. Several errors were discovered, and one of them, adding too much clay to the gravel mixture, cost the state of Arizona $26,278 (about $162 nghìn in 2016 dollars)[41] to fix.[172][173] By that year, construction had begun on the freeway west of Casa Grande, while the rest of the Arizona routing was in the design stages.[174]

In 1965, a $1.46 million (about $9 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] contract was granted to build the 5,7 dặm (9,2 km)[Chuyển đổi: Số không hợp lệ] portion from near Araby Road east through Fortuna Wash.[175] Two years later, it was estimated that construction would be complete by 1969, except for the Colorado River bridge. The highway was in progress through the Telegraph Pass east of Yuma, and the portions from Avenue 9-E to 4-E, from there to 4th Street in Yuma, and to the river were estimated to cost $9.69 million (about $55 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] in total.[176] Following local complaints, Francis Turner, the executive director of the federal Bureau of Public Roads, agreed to look at constructing an interchange at Trekell Road in Casa Grande again, after an earlier decline to do so.[177] Work began on the Casa Grande part of the freeway in March 1968, at a cost of $3 million[178] (about $16 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] That year, many gas station, motel, and restaurant owners noticed a drop in business, possibly due to concerns regarding construction traffic due to I-8; however, they hoped for increased business following completion of the freeway.[179] The Yuma County Chamber of Commerce made plans to promote tourism in the town following the completion of I-8 by late 1968.[180]

Bidding on the last portion of the freeway to be completed in Casa Grande, from Midway Road to I-10, was to begin in January 1969.[181] By November, the freeway east of Yuma was under construction, at a cost of $3.7 million[182] (about $19 triệu in 2016 dollars).[41] On June 15, 1970, eastbound traffic began on I-8 in Casa Grande, with an exit at both Trekell and Thorton roads, with westbound traffic soon to follow.[178] Businesses did not notice much change with the opening of the eastbound lanes.[183] In 1971, I-8 was nearly complete, including a new alignment east of Yuma built parallel and to the south of the original US 80 alignment. A new alignment was also built to the south of the SR 84 alignment at the eastern end of the highway from southwest of Stanfield to the eastern terminus at I-10 southeast of Casa Grande. The only portions of I-8 not completed at this time were the Gila Bend bypass and the western end near Yuma.[184] The portion east of 16th Street in Yuma was completed in June 1972;[185] the Arizona State Highway Commission authorized the $1.6 million (about $10 triệu in 2016 dollars)[41] contract to construct the sáu dặm (9,7 km) portion through Gila Bend in August.[186] Some Yuma businesses had noticed a decrease in revenue at this time; the Arizona Highway Department agreed to modify some signs to eliminate any confusion.[187] The part of I-8 between 16th and 4th streets was under construction in 1976, which was the only incomplete part of the freeway, along with the bridge over the Colorado River. The water treatment plant in Yuma was to be moved due to the potential of an accident with a vehicle carrying hazardous materials flying off the bridge and contaminating the water supply.[188][189] Đường cao tốc ở cả hai bang được hoàn thành bằng việc mở cầu vào ngày 20 tháng 9 năm 1978.[139]

Khi Xa lộ Liên tiểu bang được hoàn thành, các đường cao tốc mà nó thay thế đã bị loại bỏ khỏi hệ thống đường cao tốc tiểu bang. Năm 1973, Xa lộ Arizona 84 đã được loại bỏ khỏi đường cao tốc từ Gila Bend đến nơi mà I-8 theo một hướng tuyến mới phía tây nam của Stanfield.[190] Năm 1977, tên gọi quốc lộ Hoa Kỳ 80 đã bị loại khỏi đoạn này để nhường cho I-8.[191]

Danh sách lối ra[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

StateCountyLocationmi[1][2]kmLối ra[1]Giao cắtGhi chú
CaliforniaSan DiegoSan Diego0,000,00Nimitz Boulevard, Sunset Cliffs Boulevard – Mission Bay ParkAt-grade intersection; western terminus
0,500,801To Invalid type: I south / Mission Bay Drive, Sports Arena Boulevardlối ra ở đầu tây và lối vào ở đầu đông
1,672,69Invalid type: I (Montgomery Freeway) – Downtown San Diego, Los AngelesNo access from I-8 east to I-5 north and from I-5 south to I-8 west; I-5 exit 20; eastbound entrance from I-5 north provides direct exit ramp onto Morena Boulevard
Invalid type: I south (Montgomery Freeway) / Rosecrans StreetWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; Rosecrans St. is former SR 209 south
2,033,272CMorena BoulevardNo eastbound exit
2,604,183Taylor Street, Hotel Circle
3,886,244AHotel CircleWestbound exit is via exit 3
4,066,534B-CInvalid type: CA (Cabrillo Freeway) – Escondido, Downtown San DiegoSigned as exits 4B (SR 163 south) and 4C (SR 163 north) eastbound and exits 4A (SR 163 south) and 4B (SR 163 north) westbound; SR 163 exit 3
4,697,555Mission Center Road, Auto Circle
5,558,936ATexas Street, Qualcomm Way
6,039,706BInvalid type: I (Jacob Dekema Freeway) – Los Angeles, National City, Chula VistaI-805 exit 17
7,29–
7,31
11,73–
11,76
7A-BInvalid type: I (Escondido Freeway) / Invalid type: CA – RiversideSigned as exits 7A (north) and 7B (south) eastbound, 7A (south) and 7B (north) westbound; I-15/SR 15 exit 6B
7,9412,788Mission Gorge Road, Fairmount AvenueEastbound exit is part of exit 7
8,7114,029Waring Road
9,9916,0810College AvenueServes San Diego State University
La Mesa11,2418,0911Lake Murray Boulevard, 70th Street
12,2219,6712Fletcher Parkway, Baltimore DriveBatimore Dr. not signed eastbound
12,6220,3113ASpring Street – Downtown La MesaNo westbound exit
12,7520,52El Cajon BoulevardWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; former I-8 Bus. west; former US 80 west
13,4121,5813BJackson Drive, Grossmont BoulevardNo eastbound entrance; exit unnumbered eastbound; signed as "Jackson Dr." only westbound
14,0522,6114ALa Mesa Boulevard, Grossmont Center DriveSigned as exit 14B eastbound
14,2022,8514BInvalid type: SRExit unnumbered eastbound; SR 125 exit 18A
14,3023,0114CSeverin Drive, Fuerte DriveExit unnumbered eastbound
El Cajon15,3124,6415El Cajon Boulevard (I-8 Bus. east)Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; former US 80 east
16,2426,1416Main Street
16,9527,2817AJohnson AvenueEastbound exit and westbound entrance
17,4528,0817B-CInvalid type: SR north / Magnolia Avenue – Santee, Lakeside, RamonaSigned as exits 17B (SR 67) and 17C (Magnolia Avenue) eastbound; SR 67 exit 1
18,1229,1618Mollison Avenue
19,0130,59192nd Street (SR 54 Bus. west)Former SR 54 west
19,5031,3820AEast Main Street (I-8 Bus. west)Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
20,4032,8320BGreenfield Drive – CrestSigned as exit 20 eastbound
21,6934,9122Los Coches Road – Lakeside
23,4737,7723Lake Jennings Park Road
27,3444,0027Dunbar Lane – Harbison Canyon
Alpine30,1148,4630Tavern Road (I-8 Bus. east) – Alpine
32,9953,0933Willows Road / Alpine Boulevard (I-8 Bus. west) – Alpine
35,9857,9036East Willows RoadFormer US 80
39,4863,5440Invalid type: SR north (Japatul Valley Road) – Descanso, Julian
45,1872,7145Pine Valley, Julian
46,5874,9647Sunrise Highway (CR S1)
50,4981,2651Buckman Springs Road
53,6386,3154Kitchen Creek Road – Cameron Station
60,5097,3761Crestwood Road – Live Oak Springs
65,25105,0165Invalid type: SR west – Campo, Boulevard
73,30117,9673Jacumba
San DiegoImperial
county line
76,93123,8177In-Ko-Pah Park Road
Imperial80,21129,0980Mountain Springs Road
87,13140,2287Invalid type: SR east – CalexicoEastbound exit and westbound entrance
Ocotillo89,04143,3089Imperial Highway (CR S2) – Ocotillo
100,60161,90101Dunaway Road
107,05172,28107Drew Road (CR S29) – Seeley
111,11178,81111Forrester Road (CR S30)
El Centro114,09183,61114Imperial Avenue (I-8 Bus. east) – El Centro
115,09185,22115Invalid type: SR (4th Street / I-8 Bus. west) – El CentroFormer US 99
116,08186,81116Dogwood Road (CR S31)
118,06190,00118A-BInvalid type: SR – Brawley, Indio, CalexicoSigned as exits 118A (south) and 118B (north)
119,66192,57120Bowker Road
124,90201,01125Invalid type: SR south / Orchard Road (CR S32)
127,61205,37128Bonds Corner RoadFormer SR 115
130,62210,21131Invalid type: SR (Van Der Linden Road) – HoltvilleFormer US 80
142,87229,93143Invalid type: SR west – Calexico
145,95234,88146Brock Research Center Road
150,60242,37151Gordons Well
155,82250,77156Grays Well Road
158,81255,58159Ogilby Road (CR S34)
Felicity163,69263,43164Sidewinder Road
Araz Junction165,73266,72166Invalid type: SR south (Algodones Road) – Andrade, Mexico
169,97273,54170Winterhaven Drive (I-8 Bus. east / CR S24)
171,54276,07172Fourth Avenue (I-8 Bus.) – Winterhaven
Colorado River171,98
0,00
276,77
0,00
California–Arizona state line
ArizonaYumaYuma0,590,951Redondo Center Drive, Giss ParkwayRedondo Center Dr. not signed westbound
2,233,592Invalid type: US (16th Street)
3,986,413Avenue 3EFormer SR 280
7,6612,337Invalid type: SR south (Araby Road) – San Luis
9,4415,199Invalid type: BL west / Avenue 8½E
12,2719,7512Fortuna Road
14,2822,9814Foothills Boulevard
21,0633,8921Dome Valley
30,8449,6330Avenue 29E – Wellton
37,9961,1437Avenue 36E – Roll
42,1067,7542Avenue 40E – Tacna
54,9888,4854Avenue 52E – Mohawk Valley
67,49108,6167Dateland
73,53118,3473Aztec
78,51126,3578Spot Road
Maricopa87,10140,1787Sentinel, Hyder, Agua Caliente
102,34164,70102Painted Rock Road
106,56171,49106Paloma Road
111,49179,43111Citrus Valley Road
Gila Bend115,68186,17115Invalid type: BL east / Invalid type: AZ – Phoenix, Ajo
119,47192,27119Invalid type: BL west (Butterfield Trail) to Invalid type: AZ north / Invalid type: I
Invalid type: Loop northFuture southern terminus of Loop 303
140,86226,69140Freeman Road
144,60232,71144Vekol Valley Road
Pinal151,73244,19151Invalid type: AZ east to Invalid type: AZ north – Maricopa
161,61260,09161Stanfield
167,61269,74167Montgomery Road
169,72273,14169Bianco Road
172,62277,80172Thornton Road – Casa Grande
174,62281,02174Trekell Road – Casa Grande
Casa Grande178,36287,04178A-BInvalid type: I – Phoenix, TucsonEastern terminus; signed as exits 178A (west) and 178B (east); entrance from I-10 west includes direct entrance ramp from Sunland Gin Road; I-10 exit 199
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Xa lộ phụ và thương mại[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Không có xa lộ phụ nào liên kết với I-8. Nhưng có 4 xa lộ thương mại liên quan tới I-8 ở bốn thị trấn và thành phố sau:

  • El Cajon Boulevard đi qua trung tâm El Cajon.
  • The El Centro business loop runs along Adams Avenue in downtown El Centro.
  • The Yuma business loop begins in Winterhaven before crossing the Colorado River into Yuma and providing access to the downtown area.
  • The Gila Bend business loop connects with Arizona State Route 85.[12][192]

Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

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  2. ^ a ă â b Arizona Department of Transportation (31 tháng 12 năm 2006). “2006 ADOT Highway Log” (PDF). Phoenix: Arizona Department of Transportation. tr. 1–8. Bản gốc (PDF) lưu trữ ngày 26 tháng 3 năm 2009. Truy cập ngày 11 tháng 4 năm 2008. 
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    National Park Service. “Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Guide: Yuma County”. National Park Service. Truy cập ngày 6 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
    National Park Service. “Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Guide: Maricopa County”. National Park Service. Truy cập ngày 6 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
    National Park Service. “Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Guide: Pinal County”. National Park Service. Truy cập ngày 6 tháng 10 năm 2008. 
  7. ^ Thomas Brothers (1998). San Diego County Road Atlas (Bản đồ). 1:316,800. Irvine, CA: Thomas Brothers. tr. 1232. ISBN 0-88130-902-8. OCLC 38909538. 
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  10. ^ Vigil, Jennifer (21 tháng 9 năm 2003). “State Asked for Barriers to Stop I-8 Cross-overs”. San Diego Union-Tribune. tr. B1. OCLC 25257675. 
  11. ^ “Smugglers Make East County Highways Deadly”. San Diego Union-Tribune. 13 tháng 10 năm 2005. tr. B13. OCLC 25257675. 
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  18. ^ Pittman (1995), p. 341.
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  21. ^ Cadd, Dennis (ngày 13 tháng 2 năm 2012). “Officially Designated Scenic Highways”. Scenic Highway Program. California Department of Transportation. Truy cập ngày 7 tháng 3 năm 2012. 
  22. ^ Bản mẫu:CA Named Freeways
  23. ^ Hoffman, Geralyn Marie; Gamble, Lynn H.; San Diego State University Institute for Regional Studies of the Californias (2006). A Teacher's Guide to Historical and Contemporary Kumeyaay Culture. San Diego: San Diego State University Institute for Regional Studies of the Californias. tr. 24. ISBN 978-0-925613-51-6. OCLC 173480703. 
  24. ^ Bản mẫu:Caltrans traffic
  25. ^ a ă Google Maps – Overview Map of I-8 in Arizona (Bản đồ). Google, Inc thiết kế bản đồ. Google, Inc. Truy cập ngày 11 tháng 4 năm 2008. 
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  34. ^ “Freeway Link Opens Tomorrow on U.S. 80”. The San Diego Union. 23 tháng 4 năm 1962. tr. A18. OCLC 13155544. 
  35. ^ “State C of C Urges New Roads in Area”. The San Diego Union. 23 tháng 8 năm 1962. tr. C17. OCLC 13155544. 
  36. ^ Brooks, Joe (7 tháng 1 năm 1965). “More Freeway Center Barriers Are Planned”. The San Diego Union. tr. A21. OCLC 13155544. 
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  39. ^ “Light Industry Center Urged For Midway-Frontier Area”. The San Diego Union. 15 tháng 8 năm 1962. tr. A17. OCLC 13155544. 
  40. ^ “$11 Million Interchange Projected”. The San Diego Union. 16 tháng 3 năm 1965. tr. A15. OCLC 13155544. 
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  42. ^ “Fund Loss Feared For State Highways Under Transit Plan”. The San Diego Union. 11 tháng 5 năm 1966. tr. A22. OCLC 13155544. 
  43. ^ James, Paul (1 tháng 8 năm 1966). “Interstate 5 Will Have 36 Interchanges For Easy Travel”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  44. ^ Brown, Joe (26 tháng 3 năm 1967). “'Stack' Like Plate Of Spaghetti”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  45. ^ “$11 Million Interchange To Link Freeways”. The San Diego Union. 4 tháng 12 năm 1966. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  46. ^ a ă “Interstate 5 and 8 Ramps to Close”. The San Diego Union. 27 tháng 2 năm 1968. tr. C1. OCLC 13155544. 
  47. ^ “Council Approves 109 Freeway Route”. The San Diego Union. 29 tháng 12 năm 1967. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  48. ^ a ă “Ground Broken For Beach Freeway”. The San Diego Union. 24 tháng 9 năm 1968. tr. C3. OCLC 13155544. 
  49. ^ “Interstate 5–8 Revisions Due On Monday”. The San Diego Union. 3 tháng 8 năm 1968. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  50. ^ Clance, Homer (25 tháng 2 năm 1969). “2,000 To 3,000 Building Men Idled By Rain”. The San Diego Union. tr. B8. OCLC 13155544. 
  51. ^ Scarr, Lew (26 tháng 9 năm 1969). “Dedication of Ocean Beach Freeway Slated”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  52. ^ Bản mẫu:Cite CAstat
  53. ^ “Bids on 4 Southland Road Projects Called”. Los Angeles Times. 24 tháng 3 năm 1964. tr. 22. OCLC 3638237. 
  54. ^ “Contract Let For Widening of Interstate 8”. The San Diego Union. 31 tháng 3 năm 1967. tr. B11. OCLC 13155544. 
  55. ^ “I-8 Freeway Improvement Pact OKd”. The San Diego Union. 20 tháng 2 năm 1974. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  56. ^ Staff (25 tháng 7 năm 1974). “City Asks Interchange Construction”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  57. ^ “Roadwork Begins In Area”. The San Diego Union. 31 tháng 10 năm 1974. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  58. ^ “Interchange Project Nears Green Light”. The San Diego Union. 20 tháng 5 năm 1981. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  59. ^ Grimaldi, James (30 tháng 5 năm 1985). “El Cajon Freeway Ramps to Open Soon”. Evening Tribune. tr. B6. OCLC 37687666. 
  60. ^ Jahn, Ed (25 tháng 10 năm 1985). “Ramps are Opened Between Northbound I-15 and I-8”. The San Diego Union. tr. B2. OCLC 13155544. 
  61. ^ Taylor, Kathie (5 tháng 12 năm 1986). “Detour-Sign Watchers Have Field Day at Interchange”. Evening Tribune. tr. B22. OCLC 37687666. 
  62. ^ Hudson, Ken (1 tháng 5 năm 1977). “Traffic Congestion Plagues Interstate 8”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  63. ^ “New Mission Gorge Exit on I-8 to Open Today”. Los Angeles Times. 23 tháng 8 năm 1979. tr. SD A10. OCLC 3638237. 
  64. ^ Fuentes, Henry (20 tháng 4 năm 1984). “CalTrans Study Says Interstate 8 Stretch is Busiest Artery in Area”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  65. ^ Okerblom, Jim (20 tháng 9 năm 1987). “Interstate 8 from College Avenue to Waring is the Amazon of Freeways”. The San Diego Union. tr. B6. OCLC 13155544. 
  66. ^ Kucher, Karen (3 tháng 3 năm 1992). “Lane-Widening May Snarl Traffic on I-8”. San Diego Union-Tribune. tr. B1. OCLC 25257675. 
  67. ^ Okerblom, Jim (28 tháng 10 năm 1987). “Stoplight on I-8 May Ease Traffic”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  68. ^ Carson, Daniel (29 tháng 10 năm 1987). “Stoplight Turned Red by Protests”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  69. ^ a ă â b c McVicar, Jim (19 tháng 5 năm 1970). “San Diego-Yuma Freeway Dream Nearing Fruition”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  70. ^ McVicar, Jim (7 tháng 3 năm 1985). “Out of Way-side Ellis Rest stop still remembered”. The San Diego Union. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  71. ^ a ă â Harrison, Donald (25 tháng 5 năm 1975). “Last Section Of Interstate 8 To Yuma Opens Thursday”. The San Diego Union. tr. B10. OCLC 13155544. 
  72. ^ “Top Priority Urged On S.D, Oceanside Freeway Sections”. The San Diego Union. 28 tháng 5 năm 1963. tr. A18. OCLC 13155544. 
  73. ^ “Bids For US 80 Extension Asked”. The San Diego Union. 24 tháng 9 năm 1963. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  74. ^ “San Diego County Freeway System”. The San Diego Union. 22 tháng 2 năm 1965. tr. A3. OCLC 13155544. 
  75. ^ Van Denburgh, Russell (7 tháng 1 năm 1965). “Freeway System Big, Growing”. The San Diego Union. tr. C6. OCLC 13155544. 
  76. ^ California Division of Highways (tháng 9 năm 1965). “I-8 East of El Cajon”. California Highways and Public Works 44 (5): 40–41. OCLC 7511628. 
  77. ^ “State To Ask Bids On Alpine Road Link”. The San Diego Union. 13 tháng 10 năm 1964. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  78. ^ Staff (25 tháng 2 năm 1965). “Money For Freeway West Of Alpine OKd”. The San Diego Union. tr. A33. OCLC 13155544. 
  79. ^ “State Awards Freeway Job”. The San Diego Union. 7 tháng 8 năm 1965. tr. B20. OCLC 13155544. 
  80. ^ “Work Set To Start On New Freeway Link”. The San Diego Union. 29 tháng 9 năm 1965. tr. A21. OCLC 13155544. 
  81. ^ “State Reviews Low Road Bid For US 80”. The San Diego Union. 13 tháng 11 năm 1963. tr. A17. OCLC 13155544. 
  82. ^ “Jacumba Grade Opens Tomorrow”. The San Diego Union. 2 tháng 5 năm 1965. tr. A22. OCLC 13155544. 
  83. ^ a ă Ainsworth, Ed (22 tháng 5 năm 1966). “Jacumba Ready For Big Moment”. Los Angeles Times. tr. F6. OCLC 3638237. 
  84. ^ California Division of Highways (tháng 1 năm 1964). “Mountain Springs Grade”. California Highways and Public Works 43 (1): 43–44. OCLC 7511628. 
  85. ^ Zimmerman, Robert (26 tháng 3 năm 1963). “Atom Blasts Won't Build New US 80”. The San Diego Union. tr. A11. OCLC 13155544. 
  86. ^ Kaye, Peter (9 tháng 3 năm 1963). “Steel Is Taming Devil's Canyon”. The San Diego Union. tr. A1. OCLC 13155544. 
  87. ^ “$42 Million County Road Fund OKd”. The San Diego Union. 30 tháng 10 năm 1964. tr. A1–A2. OCLC 13155544. 
  88. ^ “$12 Million Allocated for Work on Freeways”. Los Angeles Times. 27 tháng 5 năm 1965. tr. A2. OCLC 3638237. 
  89. ^ “Bids To Be Sought For Building Freeway In Laguna Mountains”. The San Diego Union. 14 tháng 9 năm 1965. tr. A15. OCLC 13155544. 
  90. ^ “Contract Let For $3 Million US 80 Job”. The San Diego Union. 29 tháng 1 năm 1966. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  91. ^ Staff (1 tháng 8 năm 1967). “Community's Name Argument Resumes”. Los Angeles Times. tr. A2. OCLC 3638237. 
  92. ^ “$6.5 Million Road Job Let”. The San Diego Union. 18 tháng 4 năm 1967. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  93. ^ Staff (1 tháng 5 năm 1967). “Contract Let for Segment of Freeway”. Los Angeles Times. tr. 28. OCLC 3638237. 
  94. ^ “Smog Problem Eyed By El Cajon Council”. The San Diego Union. 20 tháng 10 năm 1967. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  95. ^ Staff (22 tháng 10 năm 1967). “Bid Opening Set on Interstate 8”. Los Angeles Times. tr. 26. OCLC 3638237. 
  96. ^ “Freeway Building Continues To Tie In County Cities”. The San Diego Union. 12 tháng 5 năm 1968. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  97. ^ “3-Mile Interstate 8 Freeway Job Let”. The San Diego Union. 23 tháng 8 năm 1968. tr. B8. OCLC 13155544. 
  98. ^ Hudson, Ken (8 tháng 9 năm 1968). “Million Points of Dynamite Slated to Clear Way for Interstate 8 Route”. The San Diego Union. tr. B2. OCLC 13155544. 
  99. ^ Hudson, Ken (12 tháng 2 năm 1969). “Interstate 8 Alpine Section Opens April 21”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  100. ^ “Freeway Link Opens At Alpine”. The San Diego Union. 20 tháng 4 năm 1969. tr. B2. OCLC 13155544. 
  101. ^ Hudson, Ken (23 tháng 5 năm 1969). “Interstate 8 Section Opened Near Alpine”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  102. ^ “Mountain Freeway Link Progresses”. The San Diego Union. 25 tháng 1 năm 1970. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  103. ^ a ă “County Freeways Dealt $47 Million”. The San Diego Union. 24 tháng 4 năm 1970. OCLC 13155544. 
  104. ^ Stone, Joe (26 tháng 5 năm 1970). “Highway Group Gets Scenic Tour”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  105. ^ Clance, Homer (19 tháng 3 năm 1968). “18 Highway Projects Get Top Priority”. The San Diego Union. tr. C1. OCLC 13155544. 
  106. ^ “Area's Freeways Losing Race With The Population”. The San Diego Union. 22 tháng 9 năm 1968. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  107. ^ “$26.8 Million Freeway Jobs OKd in County”. The San Diego Union. 22 tháng 10 năm 1969. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  108. ^ Clance, Homer (9 tháng 8 năm 1970). “Area Freeway Work Costs $107.5 Million”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  109. ^ Staff (10 tháng 5 năm 1971). “Improving of Highway Link Sought”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  110. ^ Staff (26 tháng 11 năm 1971). “Interstate 8 Bids Called By State”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  111. ^ Stewart, John (20 tháng 2 năm 1972). “430-Foot-High Bridge Planned For Route 8”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  112. ^ Kistler, Robert (29 tháng 3 năm 1972). “Money Problems Delay $150 Million in Freeway Work”. Los Angeles Times. tr. A1. OCLC 3638237. 
  113. ^ “Public's Mood Shifts Away From Freeways”. The San Diego Union. 8 tháng 1 năm 1974. tr. X16. OCLC 13155544. 
  114. ^ “Pine Valley Creek Bridge Dedicated”. The San Diego Union. 24 tháng 11 năm 1974. tr. B1, B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  115. ^ “San Diego”. Los Angeles Times. 18 tháng 1 năm 1979. tr. SD2. OCLC 3638237. 
  116. ^ Padilla, Steve (30 tháng 5 năm 1987). “1st 65 mph Sign Put Up East of El Cajon”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  117. ^ Knaub, Mark (1 tháng 2 năm 2012). “Early Transportation Options Included Plank Road Over Sand Dunes”. Yuma Sun. 
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  120. ^ “Highway 80 Relocation Outlined”. Los Angeles Times. 28 tháng 3 năm 1957. tr. B8. OCLC 3638237. 
  121. ^ “$42 Million OKd for County Roads”. The San Diego Union. 30 tháng 10 năm 1964. tr. A2. OCLC 13155544. 
  122. ^ “Highway Group Studies New Route”. The Yuma Sun. 20 tháng 12 năm 1964. tr. 5. 
  123. ^ “High of 110 Predicted for Today”. The San Diego Union. 19 tháng 6 năm 1966. tr. A30. OCLC 13155544. 
  124. ^ “Rains Cause Flooding, Power Loss”. The San Diego Union. 2 tháng 9 năm 1967. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
  125. ^ Hudson, Ken (5 tháng 4 năm 1968). “Freeway 8 to Yuma Seen by '73”. The San Diego Union. tr. B3. OCLC 13155544. 
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  129. ^ MacMillan, Doug (24 tháng 7 năm 1970). “Interstate 8 Link Due by Next May”. The San Diego Union . tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  130. ^ Ruane, Richard (21 tháng 2 năm 1971). “1,200 Miles of County's Roads Paved”. The San Diego Union . tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  131. ^ Staff (18 tháng 5 năm 1971). “Final Work Being Done On Freeway”. The San Diego Union . tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  132. ^ MacMillan, Doug (29 tháng 4 năm 1971). “Interstate 8 Link To Open Near Holtville Next Month”. The San Diego Union . tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  133. ^ “El Centro Firm's Bid Low For Inspection Station”. The San Diego Union . 18 tháng 9 năm 1970. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  134. ^ Staff (15 tháng 12 năm 1971). “Vegetable Shipments Up”. The San Diego Union . tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  135. ^ Staff (19 tháng 6 năm 1975). “State Orders Halt In New Road Projects”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  136. ^ “$14.9 Million Road Project Awarded to Daley Corp.”. The San Diego Union. 4 tháng 10 năm 1975. tr. B5. OCLC 13155544. 
  137. ^ a ă “Yuma I-8 Bridge Opens”. The San Diego Union. 21 tháng 9 năm 1978. tr. B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  138. ^ a ă â b Clance, Homer (14 tháng 2 năm 1977). “Bompensiero Move Into Top Mafia Post Here in 1960”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1, B4. OCLC 13155544. 
  139. ^ a ă Houston, Paul (18 tháng 8 năm 1966). “Ex-Convict Seized in Conspiracy Case”. Los Angeles Times. tr. 3. OCLC 3638237. 
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  141. ^ Staff (12 tháng 10 năm 1966). “Report Clearing Erreca Just Whitewash, Accuser Charges”. Los Angeles Times. tr. 3. OCLC 3638237. 
  142. ^ “FBI Clears Erreca of Interest Conflict”. Los Angeles Times. 4 tháng 11 năm 1966. tr. A8. OCLC 3638237. 
  143. ^ Brown, Nettie (10 tháng 12 năm 1967). “Truck Drivers to Get $36,000 in Back Pay”. Los Angeles Times. tr. B4. OCLC 3638237. 
  144. ^ Staff (25 tháng 11 năm 1966). “Supervisors Get Advice on Road Damage Costs”. Los Angeles Times. tr. 23. OCLC 3638237. 
  145. ^ Himaka, Mitch (11 tháng 7 năm 1971). “Court Orders Fratianno To Appear Here”. The San Diego Union. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  146. ^ “Fratianno Gets Prison Term”. The San Diego Union. 12 tháng 1 năm 1969. tr. B7. OCLC 13155544. 
  147. ^ Dillon, Patrick (14 tháng 9 năm 1976). “Imperial Riverside Counties Ruled Storm Disaster Areas”. The San Diego Union. tr. A1. OCLC 13155544. 
  148. ^ “Storm-Damaged Freeway Reopens”. The San Diego Union. 18 tháng 2 năm 1978. tr. B1. OCLC 13155544. 
  149. ^ Weber, Dick (10 tháng 12 năm 1982). “Rainstorm Floods and Blocks I-8 Near Ocotillo”. The San Diego Union. tr. A1. OCLC 13155544. 
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  152. ^ Heath, Erle (1945). Seventy-Five Years of Progress. San Francisco: Southern Pacific Bureau of News. 
  153. ^ Arizona Highway Department (1921). Tentative 7% System (Bản đồ). Phoenix: Arizona Highway Department. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2016. 
  154. ^ Arizona Highway Department (1926). Map of Arizona (Bản đồ). Phoenix: Arizona Highway Department. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2016. 
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