Máy tính lượng tử
A quantum computer (also known as a quantum supercomputer) is a computation device that makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositions of states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980 and Richard Feynman in 1982. A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.
(Tính đến 2014)[update] quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.
Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.
Dẫn chứng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- ^ "Quantum Computing with Molecules" article in Scientific American by Neil Gershenfeld and Isaac L. Chuang
- ^ Manin, Yu. I. (1980). Vychislimoe i nevychislimoe [Computable and Noncomputable] (bằng Russian). Sov.Radio. tr. 13–15. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 3 năm 2013.
- ^ Feynman, R. P. (1982). “Simulating physics with computers”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 21 (6): 467–488. doi:10.1007/BF02650179.
- ^ Deutsch, David (6 tháng 1 năm 1992). “Quantum computation”. Physics World.
- ^ Finkelstein, David (1969). “Space-Time Structure in High Energy Interactions”. Trong Gudehus, T.; Kaiser, G. Fundamental Interactions at High Energy. New York: Gordon & Breach.
- ^ New qubit control bodes well for future of quantum computing
- ^ Quantum Information Science and Technology Roadmap for a sense of where the research is heading.
- ^ Simon, D.R. (1994). “On the power of quantum computation”. Foundations of Computer Science, 1994 Proceedings., 35th Annual Symposium on: 116–123. doi:10.1109/SFCS.1994.365701. ISBN 0-8186-6580-7.
- ^ Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. tr. 202.
Sách[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- Nielsen, Michael and Chuang, Isaac (2000). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63503-9. OCLC 174527496.
Tham khảo chung[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- Derek Abbott, Charles R. Doering, Carlton M. Caves, Daniel M. Lidar, Howard E. Brandt, Alexander R. Hamilton, David K. Ferry, Julio Gea-Banacloche, Sergey M. Bezrukov, and Laszlo B. Kish (2003). “Dreams versus Reality: Plenary Debate Session on Quantum Computing”. Quantum Information Processing 2 (6): 449–472. arXiv:quant-ph/0310130. doi:10.1023/B:QINP.0000042203.24782.9a. hdl:2027.42/45526.
- David P. DiVincenzo (2000). "The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation". Experimental Proposals for Quantum Computation. arΧiv:quant-ph/0002077
- David P. DiVincenzo (1995). “Quantum Computation”. Science 270 (5234): 255–261. Bibcode:1995Sci...270..255D. doi:10.1126/science.270.5234.255. Table 1 lists switching and dephasing times for various systems.
- Richard Feynman (1982). “Simulating physics with computers”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 21 (6–7): 467. Bibcode:1982IJTP...21..467F. doi:10.1007/BF02650179.
- Gregg Jaeger (2006). Quantum Information: An Overview. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-35725-4. OCLC 255569451.
- Stephanie Frank Singer (2005). Linearity, Symmetry, and Prediction in the Hydrogen Atom. New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-24637-1. OCLC 253709076.
- Giuliano Benenti (2004). Principles of Quantum Computation and Information Volume 1. New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 981-238-830-3. OCLC 179950736.
- Sam Lomonaco Four Lectures on Quantum Computing given at Oxford University in July 2006
- C. Adami, N.J. Cerf. (1998). "Quantum computation with linear optics". arΧiv:quant-ph/9806048v1.
- Ian Mitchell, (1998). “Computing Power into the 21st Century: Moore's Law and Beyond”.
- Gordon E. Moore (1965). “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits”. Electronics Magazine.
- R.W. Keyes, (1988). “Miniaturization of electronics and its limits”. "IBM Journal of Research and Development".
- M. A. Nielsen,; E. Knill,; R. Laflamme,. “Complete Quantum Teleportation By Nuclear Magnetic Resonance”.
- Lieven M.K. Vandersypen,; Constantino S. Yannoni,; Isaac L. Chuang, (2000). Liquid state NMR Quantum Computing.
- Imai Hiroshi,; Hayashi Masahito, (2006). Quantum Computation and Information. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-33132-8.
- Andre Berthiaume, (1997). “Quantum Computation”.
- Daniel R. Simon, (1994). “On the Power of Quantum Computation”. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Computer Society Press.
- “Seminar Post Quantum Cryptology”. Chair for communication security at the Ruhr-University Bochum.
- Laura Sanders, (2009). “First programmable quantum computer created”.
- “New trends in quantum computation”.
Liên kết ngoài[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
|Wikimedia Commons có thêm hình ảnh và tài liệu về Máy tính lượng tử|
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "Quantum Computing" by Amit Hagar.
- Quantiki – Wiki and portal with free-content related to quantum information science.
- Scott Aaronson's blog, which features informative and critical commentary on developments in the field
- Quantum Annealing and Computation: A Brief Documentary Note, A. Ghosh and S. Mukherjee
- Maryland University Laboratory for Physical Sciences: conducts researches for the quantum computer-based project led by the NSA, named 'Penetrating Hard Target'.
- Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Computation — Coursera course by Umesh Vazirani
- Quantum computing for the determined — 22 video lectures by Michael Nielsen
- Video Lectures by David Deutsch
- Lectures at the Institut Henri Poincaré (slides and videos)
- Online lecture on An Introduction to Quantum Computing, Edward Gerjuoy (2008)
- Quantum Computing research by Mikko Möttönen at Aalto University (video) trên YouTube