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The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers.

A quantum computer (also known as a quantum supercomputer) is a computation device that makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.[1] Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositions of states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980[2] and Richard Feynman in 1982.[3][4] A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.[5]

(Tính đến 2014) quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits.[6] Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[7]

Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[8] Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.[9]

Dẫn chứng[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ "Quantum Computing with Molecules" article in Scientific American by Neil Gershenfeld and Isaac L. Chuang
  2. ^ Manin, Yu. I. (1980). Vychislimoe i nevychislimoe [Computable and Noncomputable] (bằng Russian). Sov.Radio. tr. 13–15. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 3 năm 2013. 
  3. ^ Feynman, R. P. (1982). “Simulating physics with computers”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 21 (6): 467–488. doi:10.1007/BF02650179. 
  4. ^ Deutsch, David (6 tháng 1 năm 1992). “Quantum computation”. Physics World. 
  5. ^ Finkelstein, David (1969). “Space-Time Structure in High Energy Interactions”. Trong Gudehus, T.; Kaiser, G. Fundamental Interactions at High Energy. New York: Gordon & Breach. 
  6. ^ New qubit control bodes well for future of quantum computing
  7. ^ Quantum Information Science and Technology Roadmap for a sense of where the research is heading.
  8. ^ Simon, D.R. (1994). “On the power of quantum computation”. Foundations of Computer Science, 1994 Proceedings., 35th Annual Symposium on: 116–123. doi:10.1109/SFCS.1994.365701. ISBN 0-8186-6580-7. 
  9. ^ Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. tr. 202. 

Sách[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tham khảo chung[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Joachim Stolze,; Dieter Suter, (2004). Quantum Computing. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-40438-4. 
  • Gordon E. Moore (1965). “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits”. Electronics Magazine. 
  • R.W. Keyes, (1988). “Miniaturization of electronics and its limits”. "IBM Journal of Research and Development". 
  • Lieven M.K. Vandersypen,; Constantino S. Yannoni,; Isaac L. Chuang, (2000). Liquid state NMR Quantum Computing. 
  • Imai Hiroshi,; Hayashi Masahito, (2006). Quantum Computation and Information. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-33132-8. 

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