Danh sách vua Ba Tư

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Sau đây là Danh sách vua Ba Tư theo thứ tự thời gian, trong đó có tất cả những đế quốc đã cai trị Iran và các vua của họ.

Mục lục

Vương quốc Elam khoảng 3000–519 TCN[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Người Elam định cư ở Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern India (see "Elamo-Dravidian languages") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites lived far back as 7,500 years ago in Iran. See remains here.

Các vua đầu xứ Elam (kh. 2700- kh. 2600 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Awan[1] (kh. 2600-2078 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Hamazi (kh. 2530- kh. 2030 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Simashki (kh. 2100- kh. 1928 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Anshan (kh. 2350- kh. 1970 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Eparti[4] (khoảng 1970- khoảng 1500 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Kidinuid (kh. 1500- kh. 1400 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Igehalkid[6] Dynasty (kh. 1400 – kh. 1210 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Shutrukid Dynasty (kh. 1210 – kh. 970 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite)[8] Dynasty (kh. 830–521 TCN)[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Empires of Iran[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Median Empire, 728–550 TCN سلسله مادیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the thế kỉ 6 TCN.

Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 TCN پادشاهان هخامنشی[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Line of Cyrus Line of Ariaramnes

The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Macedonian rulers[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 TCN[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Seleukos, 305–164 TCN[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. Năm 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid thế kỉ 2 TCN, nhà Seleukos mất hoàn toàn lãnh thổ ở Ba Tư. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but không có had any effective power in Persia).

Iranian Empires of Iran[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Parthian Empire[9] (Arsacid Empire.), 247 TCN – AD 228[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Bản mẫu:Arsacid dynasty There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymais client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elam, and kingdoms of Mesene in Lower Mesopotamia and Persis (Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene in Northern Mesopotamia..

Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651سلسله ساسانیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Arab caliphs rule[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

All Persian provinces served under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.

divided, 867–1029

post-Islamic Persian rulers[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Alavids, 864–928[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928

Ziyarids, 928–1043[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Buyyids, 932–1056 آل بویه[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Diylamids of Fars دیلمیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002, صفاریان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998 سامانیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Ghaznavids, 997–1186 غزنویان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 1052–1059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186

Seljuks, 1029–1194 سلجوقیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmids, 1096–1230 خوارزمشاهیان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

  • Ghotb-al-Din Muhammad I of Khwarazm ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah (1096–1128)
  • Ala-al-Din Abol Mozaffar Aziz ebne Ghotb-al-Din ebne Mohammad (1128–1156)
  • Taj-al-Din Abolfath IlIl-Arslan (1156–1171)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan (1171–1172)
  • Muhammad II of Khwarezm (Ala-al-Din Takesh ebne Il Arsalan) (1172–1199)
  • Soltan Jalal-al-Din Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh (1199–1220)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mingburnu ebne Ala-al-Din Mohammad (1220–1230)

Permanently destroyed by Mongol empire.

Ilkhans, 1256–1380 ایلخانان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a Mongol khanate, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393 مظفریان[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) (d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.

  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

Rulers in Transoxiana:

Rulers in Khurasan:

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Các vua Ba Tư hiện đại[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nền quân chủ Ba Tư hiện đại được khởi đầu năm 1502, khi vua Ismail I khởi lập nhà Safavid, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

Nhà Safavid, 1502–1736 صفویه[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhánh Safavi
Nhánh Marashi-Safavi
Safavi Line
Marashi-Safavi Line
Nhánh Sultani-Safavi
Unknown House
Sultani-Safavi Line
Unknown-Sultani-Safavi Line
  • Mohammad Shah 1786 He married the daughter of Ismail III and was installed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Quyunlu. From his descendants come the Beys of Tunisia (through his daughter).

Nhà Hotaki (các vua Afghan), 1722-1729[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

1725–1729

Nhà Afshari, 1736–1797 دودمان افشار[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Zand, 1750–1794 دودمان زند[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Here begins the modern history of the nation-state Iran. After the fall of the Afsharids, the eastern lands of Persia were lost to Pashtun tribes who created their own independent kingdom, which later became known as Afghanistan, however still a great portion of Afghanistan was a part of Persia, which was separated from Persia at the time of Qajars. For more information, see History of Afghanistan. The Zand kings never styled himself as "shah" or king, and instead used the title President (Vakil ar-Ra'aayaa وکیل الرعایا).

Nhà Qajar, 1794–1925 دودمان قاجار[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Nhà Pahlavi, 1925–1979 دودمان پهلوی[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Năm 1979 cuộc cách mạng do Ayatollah Khomeini lãnh đạo lật đổ vua Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, buộc ông phải sang sống lưu vong ở nước. Nước Cộng hoà Hồi giáo được thàng lập ngày 1 tháng 4 năm 1979.

Ghi chú[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Ba vua đầu tiên của Awan cũng là vua Lưỡng Hà.
  2. ^ He was also king of Mesopotamia.
  3. ^ He and his three successors are known only from the king lists.
  4. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Epartid dynasty are prepared based on Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York, 1998.
  5. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings.
  6. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Igehalkid dynasty are prepared based on Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York, 1998.
  7. ^ He was also king of Babylon.
  8. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Humban-Tahrid dynasty are prepared based on these articles: Henkelman, wouter. Defining Neo-Elamite History. ARTA, 2003. Reade, Julian E. Elam after the Assyrian Sack of Susa in 647 TCN NABU, 2000. Tavernier, Jan. Some Thoughts on Neo-Elamite Chronology. ARTA, 2004 The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. I.2. Vallat, Francois. Shutruk-Nahunte, Shutur-Nahunte et l'imbroglio neo-elamite. NABU, 1995. Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York, 1998.
  9. ^ The dates of early Arsacids here is based on these articles: Assar, G.R.F., "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers. I", Parthica, 6, 2004, pp. 69-93. Assar, G.R.F., "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers, II a revised stemma", Parthica, 7, 2005, pp.29-63. Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 TCN", Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87-158. Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 91-55 TCN", Parthica, 8, 2006, pp. 55-104. Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, tháng 3 năm 2009.

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