Ngữ hệ Tungus

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Ngữ hệ Tungus

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Phân bố
địa lý
Xibia, Đông Bắc Trung Quốc
Phân loại ngôn ngữ họcMột trong những ngữ hệ chính trên thế giới
Ngôn ngữ con:
  • Bắc
  • Nam
ISO 639-5:tuw
Glottolog:tung1282[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Phân bố địa lý

Ngữ hệ Tungus (còn gọi là ngữ hệ Mãn-Tungus) là một ngữ hệ miền đông XibiaMãn Châu. Hầu hết ngôn ngữ Tungus bị đe dọa, và tương lai của các ngôn ngữ kia cũng không vững vàng. Có đâu chừng 75.000 người bản ngữ trải trên hơn một tá ngôn ngữ Tungus. Một số học giả xếp ngữ hệ Tungus vào ngữ hệ Altai chưa chắc chắn, cùng với ngữ hệ Turk, Mongol, đôi lúc cả Triều TiênNhật Bản.

Từ "Tungus" là một ngoại danhngười Yakutngười Tatar Xibia gọi người Evenk ("tongus") vào thế kỷ XVII, nghĩa là "heo/lợn". Nó được mượn vào tiếng Nga thành "тунгус", rồi tới tiếng Anh thành "Tungus". Việc dùng "Tungus" cho người Evenk được coi là thiếu tôn trọng.

Phân loại[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

Những nhà ngôn ngữ học nghiên cứu ngôn ngữ Tungus đặt ra nhiều hệ thống phân loại, dựa trên "tiêu chí" khác nhau, gồm đặc điểm hình thái, từ vựng, và âm vị. Một số học giả bỏ qua mô hình rẽ nhánh, cho rằng vì lịch sử tiếp xúc lâu dài giữa các tộc nói ngôn ngữ Tungus với nhau, ngữ hệ Tungus nên được coi là một dialect continuum (dãy phương ngữ).[2]

Một phân loại được nhiều người chấp thuận chia ngữ hệ Tungus ra làm nhánh Bắc và nhánh Nam (Georg 2004). Trong khi đó, Hölzl (2018)[3], chia hệ ra làm bốn nhóm con, tên Ewen, Udeghe, Nana, và Jurche.

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Cơ cấu người nói ngôn ngữ Tungus theo ngôn ngữ:

  Xibe/Tích Ba (55%)
  Evenk (28.97%)
  Even (10.45%)
  số khác (5.58%)
Tungus Bắc
Tungus Nam

Alexander Vovin[5] ghi nhận rằng tiếng Mãn và tiếng Nữ Chân là những ngôn ngữ dị biệt trong nhánh Tungus Nam; điều này có thể là do ảnh hưởng từ tiếng Khiết Đan, tiếng Triều Tiên cổ, có lẽ cả Chukotka-Kamchatka.

Mặc cho những nét giống nhau giữa hệ Tungus và tiếng Triều Tiên, Vovin (2013)[6] cho rằng hai bên không liên quan.

Chú thích[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert và đồng nghiệp biên tập (2013). “Tungusic”. Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Lindsay J. Whaley, Lenore A. Grenoble and Fengxiang Li (tháng 6 năm 1999). “Revisiting Tungusic Classification from the Bottom up: A Comparison of Evenki and Oroqen”. Language. JSTOR 417262. 
  3. ^ Hölzl, Andreas. 2018. The Tungusic language family through the ages: Interdisciplinary perspectives: Introduction. International Workshop at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea (SLE). 29 August – 1st September 2018, Tallinn University, Estonia.
  4. ^ a ă â Mu, Yejun 穆晔骏. 1987: Balayu 巴拉语. Manyu yanjiu 满语研究 2. 2‒31, 128.
  5. ^ Vovin, Alexander. Why Manchu and Jurchen Look so Un-Tungusic?
  6. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2013. Why Koreanic is not demonstrably related to Tungusic?. Proceedings of the conference Comparison of Korean with Other Altaic Languages: Methodologies and Case Studies, November 15, 2013, Gachon University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Tài liệu[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Kane, Daniel. The Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters. Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, Volume 153. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1989. ISBN 0-933070-23-3.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew. Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971.
  • Poppe, Nicholas. Vergleichende Grammatik der Altaischen Sprachen [A Comparative Grammar of the Altaic Languages]. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
  • Tsintsius, Vera I. Sravnitel'naya Fonetika Tunguso-Man'chzhurskikh Yazïkov [Comparative Phonetics of the Manchu-Tungus Languages]. Leningrad, 1949.
  • Stefan Georg. "Unreclassifying Tungusic", in: Carsten Naeher (ed.): Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies (Bonn, August 28 – September 1, 2000), Volume 2: Trends in Tungusic and Siberian Linguistics, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 45-57

Further reading[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]

  • Aixinjueluo Yingsheng 􀀆􀀃􀀉􀀈􀀅􀀇. 2014. Manyu kouyu yindian 􀀄􀀊􀀂􀀊􀀋􀀁. Peking: Huayi chubanshe.
  • Apatóczky, Ákos Bertalan; Kempf, Béla (2017). Recent developments on the decipherment of the Khitan small script. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. 70(2). 109–133. .
  • Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2015. Tungusic historical linguistics and the Buyla (a.k.a. Nagyszentmiklós) inscription. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 20. 17-46.
  • Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2017a. An Oroch word-list lost and rediscovered: A critical edition of Tronson's 1859 pseudo- Nivkh vocabulary. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 80(1). 97-117.
  • Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2017b. From converb to classifier? On the etymology of Literary Manchu nofi. In Michał Né meth, Barbara Podolak & Mateusz Urban (eds.), Essays in the history of languages and linguistics. Dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 57-80. Cracow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
  • Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2018. Past tenses, diminutives and expressive palatalization: Typology and the limits of internal reconstruction in Tungusic. In Bela Kempf, Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky & Christopher P. Atwood (eds.), Philology of the Grasslands: Essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic Studies, 112-137. Leiden: Brill.
  • Aralova, Natalia. 2015. Vowel harmony in two Even dialects: Production and perception. Utrecht: LOT.
  • Baek, Sangyub. 2014. Verbal suffix -du in Udihe. Altai Hakpo 24. 1-22.
  • Baek, Sangyub. 2016. Tungusic from the perspective of areal linguistics: Focusing on the Bikin dialect of Udihe. Saporo:Graduate Scholof Leters, Hokkaidō University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
  • Baek, Sangyub. 2014. Verbal suffix -du in Udihe. Altai Hakpo 24. 1-22.
  • Baek, Sangyub. 2017. Grammatical peculiarities of Oroqen Evenki from the perspective of genetic and areal linguistics. Linguistic Typology of the North, vol. 4. 13-32.
  • Baek, Sangyub 􀀖􀀐􀀕. 2018. Chiiki gengo-gaku-teki kanten kara mita tsungūsu shogo no hojo dōshi 􀀓􀀊􀀎􀀏􀀋􀀔􀀌􀀕􀀂􀀅􀀍􀀃 􀀈􀀉􀀆􀀁􀀇􀀑􀀏􀀄􀀗􀀒􀀖􀀐. Hoppō gengo kenkyū 􀀌􀀒􀀚􀀜􀀗􀀘 8. 59-79.
  • Bogunov, Y. V., O. V. Maltseva, A. A. Bogunova & E. V. Balanovskaya 2015. The Nanai clan Samar: The structure of gene pool based on Ychromosome markers. Archaeology Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 43(2). 146-152.
  • Bulatova, Nadezhda. 2014. Phonetic correspondences in the languages of the Ewenki of Russia and China. Altai Hakpo 24. 23-38.
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  • Chaoke 􀁄􀀏 D. O. 2014a. Man tonggusiyuzu yuyan ciyuan yanjiu 􀁖􀁳􀀞􀀼􀁮􀀾􀁮􀁨􀁬􀁬􀁕􀁝􀁡. Peking: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
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