Danh sách các quốc gia và vùng lãnh thổ theo đường biên giới trên bộ
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Các quốc gia và vùng lãnh thổ chỉ được nối với nhau bởi những cây cầu hay đường đấp cao, sẽ không được tính đó là biên giới trên đất liền. phần nghi chú cuối trang sẽ cung cấp thông tin đầy đủ về tình trạng biên giới của các quốc gia và vùng lãnh thổ trên.
Biên giới trên đất liền[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
Cực đại[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- Longest land border between two countries: Canada – United States: 8,891 km (Canada–United States border)
- Longest single segments of land borders: Kazakhstan – Russia: 6,846 km · Canada – United States: 6,414 km · Argentina – Chile: 5,150 km
- Shortest land borders between two countries: Botswana – Zambia: 150 m near Kazungula · Gibraltar – Spain: 1.2 km · Italy – Vatican City: 3.2 km
- Shortest single segments of land border: Maroc – Spain: 87 m at Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera · Botswana – Zambia: 150 m · Gibraltar – Spain: 1.2 km · Italy – Vatican City: 3.2 km
- Most separate segments of land borders between any two countries or territories: Bangladesh – India: 199  · Cyprus – Bản mẫu:Country data Akrotiri and Dhekelia: 5  · China – India: 3  · Oman - United Arab Emirates: 3 · Spain – Maroc: 3
- Highest number of bordering countries: Russia: 14 · China: 14
Chú thích[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
- ^ a ă The concept of state sovereignty is somewhat imprecise and there are disagreements about whether certain territories are sovereign. There are currently 194 states that are generally regarded as "fully" sovereign: this includes the 193 member states of the United Nations plus Vatican. Some of these states have under their jurisdiction territories, dependencies, or collectivities that are clearly non-sovereign geographical areas. These territories are generally regarded as being subsumed within the overarching sovereignty of the governing state. For example, the United Kingdom holds sovereignty over the territory of Gibraltar, even though Gibraltar is not considered to be part of the United Kingdom. There are a few territories in the world that are neither clearly sovereign nor clearly subsumed under another state's sovereignty. Often, these territories have declared themselves to be sovereign, but they are either not widely recognized as such or lack some of the necessary conditions for sovereign statehood. In these cases, explanatory footnotes indicate how the territory is treated for the purposes of this list.
- ^ Note: land border lengths will vary depending on the scale by which they are measured, and therefore these figures without a source accompanied by an explanation of how they were measured and at what scale makes comparisons impossible; for more information see coastline paradox.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i k l m n o ô ơ This là một territorial claim in Antarctica. Territorial claims in Antarctica have been recognized only between the few countries making claims in the area. Because some of the claims overlap and there is a low number of recognition for these claims, Antarctic territorial claims are not included in this chart when listing countries' neighbouring countries and territories. The specific Antarctic claims are included in this chart, but only in reference to each other.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ e ê This territory is part of the widely dispersed French Southern and Antarctic Lands, an overseas territory of France.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i k l m This territory is not sovereign but is a British overseas territory. Its territory constitutes part of the sovereign territory of the United Kingdom but strictly speaking is not part of the United Kingdom itself.
- ^ a ă â b c d Akrotiri shares one border with Cyprus. Dhekelia shares one main boundary with Cyprus, but there are three separate enclaves of Cyprus within the main Dhekelia–Cyprus border, which creates three additional borders.
- ^ a ă â b c In 2008, Kosovo declared independence from Serbia. Although Kosovo's sovereignty has been recognized by about 65 states, it is not a member of the United Nations and Serbia disputes its sovereignty, claiming that Kosovo remains one of its provinces. The dispute has been referred to the International Court of Justice. For purposes of this list, Kosovo is considered to be a sovereign country. If Kosovo is considered part of Serbia, some numbers in the table would be reduced by one (e.g., when a state borders both Serbia and Kosovo). Other numbers would remain the same (e.g., when a state borders Kosovo but not Serbia).
- ^ a ă â b Western Sahara is a non-self-governing territory. Administration is split between Maroc and the largely unrecognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, both of which claim sovereignty over the entire territory (see Legal status of Western Sahara). For purposes of this list, Western Sahara is considered to be a sovereign country.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i k l m n o This territory is not sovereign, but is an insular area of the United States. U.S. territories are considered to be part of the sovereign territory of the United States.
- ^ a ă 225 km via Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province.
- ^ a ă â b Claims to territory overlap.
- ^ a ă 5,150 km via the long continental border and 150 km via the border on Tierra del Fuego.
- ^ a ă 566 km with Azerbaijan-proper and 221 km with the Nakhichevan exclave. Additionally, in Armenia, there exist three Azerbaijani exclaves: Barxudarlı, Yuxarı Əskipara and Karki (located north of the region of Nakhchivan) Reciprocally, there exists one Armenian exclave, a village called Artsvashen in north-western Azerbaijan. This makes a total of 6 separate borders, including the 2 major borders.
- ^ a ă â b c This territory is not sovereign, but is a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. For purposes of this list, Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Netherlands are considered constituent parts of one sovereign state.
- ^ a ă â b c d This territory is not sovereign but is part of the sovereign territory of Australia.
- ^ a ă One via Azerbaijan-proper and one via the Nakhichevan exclave.
- ^ a ă Via the Nakhichevan exclave.
- ^ a ă This territory is not sovereign but is an autonomous region of Portugal. Its territory constitutes a constituent part of the sovereign territory of Portugal.
- ^ a ă On the India-Bangladesh border in the Indian district of Cooch-Behar, there are 92 Bangladeshi exclaves, with a total area of 47.7 km². Similarly, there are 106 Indian exclaves inside Bangladesh, with a total area of 69.5 km². Twenty-one of the Bangladeshi exclaves are within Indian exclaves, and three of the Indian exclaves are within Bangladeshi exclaves. The largest Indian exclave, Balapara Khagrabari, surrounds a Bangladeshi exclave, Upanchowki Bhajni, which itself surrounds an Indian exclave called Dahala Khagrabari, of less than one hectare. These 198 exclave borders plus the main border give a total of 199 sections of border.
“The end of the enclaves”. The Economist.
- ^ a ă Madagascar claims sovereignty over Bassas da India, Europa Island, and Juan de Nova Island.
- ^ a ă Germany has a group of 5 enclaves created by the Vennbahn railway trackbed between the towns of Roetgen and Monschau (south of Aachen) that was granted Belgian sovereignty. Bỉ therefore has 5 borders with these exclaves and one border with the rest of Germany.
- ^ a ă The town of Baarle in the southern Netherlands is made up of the municipality of Baarle-Hertog, a group of 22 Belgian enclaves within the Netherlands; and of the Dutch municipality of Baarle-Nassau, which itself has one enclave in the main body of Belgium and 7 counter-enclaves inside two of the Belgian enclaves. There are therefore 30 separate enclave border sections, plus the main border for a total of 31 distinct sections.
- ^ a ă The town of Sastavci (part of Rudo municipality, Foča Region) is completely surrounded by the Serbian municipality of Priboj, in Zlatibor District.
- ^ This territory is not sovereign and is a dependent territory of Norway. It is not part of the Kingdom of Norway, but it is considered to be part of the sovereign territory of Norway.
- ^ a ă â b c d This territory is not sovereign but is an overseas department and an overseas region of France. As such, it is sovereign French territory that is an integral part of the French Republic.
- ^ a ă â 6,416 km via the contiguous 48 states and 2,477 km via Alaska.
- ^ For information on the Republic of China, see the listing in this table under "Taiwan".
- ^ a ă Hong Kong is not sovereign but since 1997 has been a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong has a high degree of autonomy, including separate passports and a defined international boundary within China, but it is not considered a separate sovereign state for the purposes of this list.
- ^ a ă Macau is not sovereign but since 1999 has been a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Macau has a high degree of autonomy, including separate passports and a defined international boundary within China, but it is not considered a separate sovereign state for the purposes of this list.
- ^ Clipperton Island is not sovereign but is property of the government of France; as such, it is part of the sovereign territory of France.
- ^ The Cook Islands is a self-governing country in free association with New Zealand. The Cook Islands controls a portion of its own foreign affairs, including the establishment and regulation of borders. However, the Cook Islands is not a member of the United Nations and is part of the Realm of New Zealand, with Cook Island people being New Zealand citizens.
- ^ a ă â Cuba has a 29 km border with the United States Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay. However, the naval base is sovereign Cuban territory and subject to treaty is leased perpetually by the U.S. government; therefore, this does not constitute an international border.
- ^ Northern Cyprus declared independence in 1983, shortly after Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ invaded the island in response to a coup d'état by Greek Cypriots that was backed by Greece. Cyprus disputes the declaration of sovereignty and considers Northern Cyprus to be part of its territory. The United Nations and the European Union also do not recognize the sovereignty of Northern Cyprus. The only sovereign state that recognizes Northern Cyprus's sovereignty is Turkey. Northern Cyprus also lacks some of the indicators of legal sovereignty, relying heavily on Turkey for its continuing existence separate from Cyprus. Because of these factors, Northern Cyprus is not considered a sovereign state for the purposes of this list and is not included in other countries' listings of neighbouring countries and territories.
- ^ Northern Cyprus borders Dhekelia only, not Akrotiri.
- ^ a ă “CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Updated ngày 31 tháng 5 năm 2012. Truy cập ngày 31 tháng 5 năm 2012.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ In 1988, the Palestinian Liberation Organization declared as sovereign the State of Palestine. Although Palestinian sovereignty is recognized by about 130 countries, Palestine is not a member of the United Nations and lacks other indicators of legal sovereignty. The State of Palestine/Palestinian territories consist of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In this list, for purposes of counting bordering states, the Palestinian territories are considered to be a single sovereign entity.
- ^ a ă â b Via French Guiana
- ^ Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, which is a British overseas territory.
- ^ a ă This territory is not sovereign, but is a country within the Kingdom of Denmark. For purposes of this list, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland are considered constituent parts of one sovereign state.
- ^ Excluding French overseas departments, collectivities, and territories.
- ^ a ă â The town of Llívia is a Spanish exclave situated inside French territory. France has one border with it and two sections of border with the rest of Spain (separated by Andorra).
- ^ a ă â Excluding Adélie Land.
- ^ Via Saint Martin.
- ^ a ă â b c d đ e This territory is not sovereign, but is an overseas collectivity of France, and as such it is part of the sovereign territory of France.
- ^ a ă This territory is not sovereign but is an overseas territory of France.
- ^ a ă Büsingen, Germany is an exclave in the canton of Schaffhausen, northern Switzerland. Switzerland has one border with it and one border with the rest of Germany.
- ^ Madagascar claims sovereignty over the Glorioso Islands.
- ^ a ă â This territory is not sovereign but it a British Crown Dependency. Crown Dependencies are possessions of the British Crown but strictly speaking are not part of the United Kingdom.
- ^ India borders Afghanistan only via Kashmir, a territory disputed between India and Pakistan. If Pakistan's territorial claims are accepted, India and Afghanistan do not border one another.
- ^ Sri Lanka borders India on one of the many shoals of Rama's Bridge.
- ^ (4 not including the Palestinian Territories)
- ^ (6 if the West Bank and Gaza strip are counted separately; 4 if they are not counted)
- ^ a ă Campione d'Italia is enclaved in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland, although in practice it is administered as part of Switzerland. It is part of Swiss customs, uses the Swiss franc, its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure, and it is under Italian sovereignty. Switzerland therefore has one border with it and one border with the rest of Italy.
- ^ a ă The Tajik village of Vorukh, along with another small piece of land near Kairagach are embodied in Kyrgyz land. There are therefore 3 sections of border between the two countries.
- ^ a ă Barak, a small Kyrgyz village, is surrounded by Uzbekistan. Reciprocally, the Uzbek towns of So'x ( ) and Shohimardon as well as the two tiny territories of Qal'acha and Khalmion (north of So'x) are all surrounded by Kyrgyz territory. There are therefore 5 enclave borders in addition to the main Kyrgyz/Uzbek border for a total of 6.
- ^ a ă â b Via Kaliningrad.
- ^ a ă 6.3 km via Ceuta; 9.6 km via Melilla; 85 m via Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera
- ^ The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic declared independence from Azerbaijan in 1991. However, neither Azerbaijan nor any other state or international organization has recognized Nagorno-Karabakh as a sovereign state. For this reason, Nagorno-Karabakh is not considered a sovereign state for the purposes of this list and is not included in other countries' listings of neighbouring countries and territories.
- ^ Does not include Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
- ^ New Caledonia is not sovereign but is a sui generis collectivity of France and as such it is part of the sovereign territory of France.
- ^ Niue is a self-governing country in free association with New Zealand. Niue controls a portion of its own foreign affairs, including the establishment and regulation of borders. However, Niue is not a member of the United Nations and is part of the Realm of New Zealand, with Niuean people being New Zealand citizens.
- ^ 51 km via the Gaza Strip and 307 km via the West Bank.
- ^ a ă Consisting of one border of 362 km and another of 169 km.
- ^ a ă â Singapore is connected to Malaysia by a causeway and a bridge.
- ^ Somaliland declared independence from Somalia in 1991. However, neither Somalia nor any other state or international organization has recognized Somaliland as a sovereign state. For this reason, Somaliland is not considered a sovereign state for the purposes of this list and is not included in other countries' listings of neighbouring countries and territories.
- ^ This territory is not sovereign, but is a constituent part of the Kingdom of Norway.
- ^ In 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, the government and leaders of the Republic of China (ROC), led by Chiang Kai-shek, retreated from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. In Taiwan, the ROC continues to claim sovereignty over all China, including the mainland and Taiwan. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which has governed mainland China since the ROC government retreated, also claims to be the sole representative of all China, including Taiwan. Even though the ROC government in Taiwan has never asserted that Taiwan's sovereignty is separate from that of China's, for many practical purposes Taiwan is treated by other countries and international organizations as a country that is separate from the PRC. However, Taiwan is not considered to be a sovereign entity that is separate from China for purposes of this list and is not included in other countries' listings of neighbouring countries and territories.
- ^ a ă The Tajik village of Sarvan is in Uzbek territory. Uzbekistan has one border with it, and another with the rest of Tajikistan.
- ^ Tokelau is a non-self-governing territory within the Realm of New Zealand. For purposes of this list, Tokelau, the Cook Islands, New Zealand, and Niue are considered constituent parts of one sovereign state.
- ^ In the early 1990, Transnistria attempted to separate itself, first from the Moldavian SSR and then from sovereign Moldova. Moldova disputes Transnistrian sovereignty and considers it to be part of its territory. There are no sovereign states that recognize Transnistria's sovereignty. Because of the lack of international recognition, Transnistria is not considered a sovereign state for the purposes of this list and is not included in other countries' listings of neighbouring countries and territories.
- ^ Madagascar claims sovereignty over Tromelin Island.
- ^ The United Kingdom does not include British overseas territories or Crown dependencies.
- ^ The Quần đảo Marshall claims sovereignty over Wake Island, which is an insular area of the United States.
- ^ Via the 48 contiguous states.
- ^ These segments are separated by 198 enclaves.
- ^ These segments are separated by Bhutan and Nepal.
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